Sunday, May 24, 2020
Darwin first presented his theory of evolution by natural selection through his book called Ã¢â¬ËOn the Origin of SpeciesÃ¢â¬â¢. The book was released in 1859 and it explained the process of how organisms changed over time through the result of changes in heritable physical or behavioural traits. These changes allow an organism to adapt to the environment that it inhabits so that the organismÃ¢â¬â¢s chances of survival improve and produce more offspring (Than, 2015). However, biological evolution does not simply mean a change over time. It is believed that the central idea of biological evolution is that all organisms on Earth share a common ancestor (Understanding Evolution, 2015). DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory Ã¢â¬Ëpresumes the development of life from non-life and stresses a purely naturalistic (undirected) Ã¢â¬Ëdescent with modificationÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (All About Science, 2015). Mutations that aid the survival of an organism are preserved and that is a process called natural s election. The beneficial mutations are passed on to the next generation and over time, the beneficial mutations accumulate and the result is variation between organisms (All About Science, 2015). The fact that there are numerous species that are living and extinct shows that there must have been a reason why one organism had the ability to survive and the other did not. Their survival depended on their adaptability to their environment (American Museum of Natural History, 2015). HYPOTHESIS Since the technology was poor, it was difficult to supportShow MoreRelatedDarwin s Theory On Evolution1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory on Evolution Evolution is the belief that all living forms including humans came from ancient ancestors. Evolution is what makes life possible. It allows organisms to adapt to the environment as it changes. In Biology, theory of evolution does not tell us how life began on earth, but it helps us understand how life came into existence, diversified in many forms on earth, and fossil records. Scientists have many theories on evolution. One of the theories suggests all the healthyRead MoreDarwin s Theory Of Evolution1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages There are many theories as to what scientist believe is the forth coming of evolution or what they deem to be the reasoning behind its development. However, Charles Darwin would change the theories of evolution and would go down in history as one of the greatest influential figures in human existence. Although some scientist disagree with DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory, Darwin is the only person who was able to provide sufficient evidence to prove his theory of evolution. The one question that remains, Can GodRead MoreDarwin s Theory Of Evolution1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesscientists spent their lives working on a succinct theory of evolution, but none found as great of popularity and success as Charles Darwin. Using his concept of Natural Selection, Darwin managed to explain evolution in not just the organic world, but also in humans. The fact that DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory transfers so easily to human society is no coincidence. After DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Beagle voyage, he returned to England duri ng the Industrial Revolution. As a man of wealth, Darwin acted as a first-hand witness to the societalRead MoreDarwin s Theory Of Evolution Essay918 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages When Charles Darwin wrote The Origin Of Species, there was controversy over his theory of evolution natural selection. DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was debated between Thomas Huxley and Samuel Wilberforce at the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1860. Wilberforce was against the idea that all living things descended from a common ancestor. He was highly critical of DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s research, often arguing in his review that many points in DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory did not have enough support to be valid. Read MoreDarwin s Theory Of Evolution859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnother issue is that DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory has many holes the scientists are unable to fill. These holes are obvious in DwainÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of evolution. Craig Belanger works for EBSCO Publishing he stated in his Biography of Charles Darwin, which was found on the TRC database under Book Collection Nonfiction: High School Edition Belanger said that, Although there are many facets to Darwin s theory of evolution by natural selection, at its core is the idea that a species ability to evolve is based on itsRead MoreDarwin s Theory Of Evolution1483 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of evolution states that Ã¢â¬Å"by natural selection, organisms that possess heritable traits that enable them to better adapt to their environment, compared with other members of their species will be more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass more of their genes on to the next generationÃ¢â¬ . The grouping of organisms in the classification table is not just the result of similarities, colours, ecological functions, etc, it also covers and expresses information about our understanding ofRead MoreDarwin And Darwin s Theory Of Evolution1201 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIt is often thought today that the theory of evolution started with Darwin and begun in the nineteenth Hundreds. Nonetheless, the thought of species changing over the years, had pic ked up for a long time in one shape to something else. It was denied by the maximum, due to the defender whom did not had any slight idea dealing with a gratifying mechanism that would analyze in innovation. The utmost significant evolutionary beliefs pervious to Darwin were of Lamarck and Geoffrey Hillarie, advanced aroundRead MoreDarwin s Theory Of Biological Evolution1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Evolution refers to the processes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest forms to the vast diversity that characterizes it todayÃ¢â¬ (Campbell, 1993). However, a lot of things can change over a period of time. The Ã¢â¬Å"Father of EvolutionÃ¢â¬ who is known as Charles Darwin, developed the theory of biological evolution. This theory has long been debated during and after darwin s time. Biological evolution can be seen through a momentous change in organisms by changing of the genetic compositionRead MoreCharles Darwin s Theory Of Evolution1750 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCharles Darwin is remembered for his theory of evolution. Much controversy surrounds Darwin s theory. Questions abound. Is evolution a four billion year old process, creating life forms primarily at random but each shaped by an ever-changing and complex environment, that has resulted in all of the wondrous life forms that surround us? Or are all of those beautiful elements of our nature, along with the vastness and majesty of the entire universe, a creation of an intellect of vast intelligence andRead MoreCharles Darwin s Theory Of Evolution984 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCharles Robert Darwin was a British man who became one of the greatest contributors to the study of evolution. He was a naturalist who was able to develop a theory of evolution based on biological changes that he witnessed occurring in varieties of samples on his travels all around the world. Charles Darwin is valuable in science history, simply because he was the first geologists who had come the closest for closi ng the gap on how and why biological changes occurred. The naturalist and geologist
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.Ã¢â¬ These are the words of Benjamin Franklin, one of the founding fathers of the United States who had many professions all of which relied on the importance of education. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, education is one of the most important aspects of daily life, especially if education extends beyond high school. While colleges can be remarkably expensive, higher education is one acquisition you canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford not to take. We live in a world where we depend on higher education to allow us to be content with our lives. Yet, so many people in our society are content with taking the easy way out and not pursing higher education. To better understand our education fixation about our knowledgeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, to make a significant change in your future, career, or even your happiness, your best bet is to obtain a college degree. The U.S Department of Education reported on the online National Center for Education Statistics that between 2002 and 2012, undergraduate enrollment rose 24 percent overall (Education, Fast Facts). A larger percentage of people are coming to realize the importance of furthering their education through various ways. Many people start with a two year degree at a technical school and earn their associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree. Most career paths require more than only two years of schooling so most people attend a four year university to earn their bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree and maybe go on to achieve a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, or even a professional or doctoral degree. Higher education even comes in all forms and one of the most popular is online schooling. An individual can now earn a degree without even stepping out of his or her home. According to the online U.S News and World Report Education on January 9, 2013, more than 6.7 million students took at least one online course through a university during the fall of 2011 (Sheehy). After taking some notes on what a higher education consists of, we can now study and review why we need and can benefit from higher education. Pursuing a higher education is vital in everyday life today and could help determine how successful an individual can be. The benefits of
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A Personal Philosophy of Music Education Few would argue against the idea that we educate ourselves and our society so that we have adequate means with which to understand and interact with elements of the world around us. Subjects such as mathematics, language, history, and the hard sciences are granted immediate and unquestioned legitimacy in our schools, and with good reason. We encounter each of these elements of our lives on a daily basis. We need to have an understanding of these disciplines in order to interact with them, otherwise they are meaningless to us. I submit that the same can be said for the fundamental concepts of music. Music is something that we encounter in our society every day. It surrounds us. IndeedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This connection is both quantitative and qualitative in that quality of life increasingly benefits from both the amount of education we receive and the quality of that education. To a great extent we define our quality of life based on economic status. Education has been ver y clearly shown to allow us access to employment, and to make us more informed consumers. Thus, an educated society is one that is capable of developing individuals who can both specialize, and who can make informed decisions about goods and services outside their area of specialization. This is a central need to both industries and citizens in a capitalist society. This is one reason why music is such an important thing for every member of society to learn, even if they are not music specialists such as performers or composers. As I stated earlier, virtually every member of our society encounters music every day. There are many objective elements of music that we need to be familiar with in order to successfully interact with it. These include basic understanding of concepts such as beat, pitch, and texture. Furthermore, as music is a form of expression, if one wants to understand what is being expressed, one needs to speak the language in which it is expressed. Just like there is literacy of words and numbers, there is literacy of music. This is not a position held solely by educators orShow MoreRelated My Personal Philosophy of Education Essay1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMy Personal Philosophy of Education Some people make things happen, some watch while things happen, and some wonder Ã¢â¬Ëwhat happened?Ã¢â¬â¢ Which type of person are you? author unknown. There have been times in my life in which I have sat back and watched things happen. I often wondered why they happened. I now realize that it is important to be a leader. Effective teachers need to take charge and make things happen. I am becoming a teacher to make things happen and not sit back and let themRead MoreEducation: Keeping the Republic Together Essay654 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesEducation: Keeping the Republic Together Our world today puts huge amounts of emphasis on education, specifically in order to get a better job, make more money or take enjoyment in what we do. We see a similar importance placed on education in SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ make believe city, as described in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic. However, Socrates has made it clear that this education is not for personal betterment or gain, but rather for the common good. Socrates has created his Republic with education of its citizensRead MoreHow Did Music From the Middle Ages and the Renaissance Reflect Core Values?674 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿How Did Middle Age/Renaissance Music Reflect Core Values? The Renaissance was an influential period in developing humanistic inquiry. The age is characterized by a deep commitment to education and the arts. People began studying science and creating art for its own sake; it was believed that engaging in such endeavors allowed one to lead a life of morality, and Renaissance artwork was devoted to core values concerning early Christian morality and learning. This paper discusses Joaquin des PrezsRead MoreModern Composers : John Cage1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCage Music is a very peculiar term. Everyone knows what it is, yet there are different interpretations and definitions of what it means to them as seen from the varying styles of composers over time. In BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s case, music to him was an escape from reality and his greatest ally in cooperating with deafness. However, there are other composers who sought to think otherwise. John Cage is an exemplary modern composer who believed that music doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to make sense. He simply loved music for theRead MoreHumanities Today Essay745 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesanalytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences (Humanities Definition, para 1).Ã The humanities include ancient and modern languages, literature, history, philosophy, religion, and visual and performing arts like music and theatre. The humanities that are called social sciences include technology, history, anthropology, area studies, communication studies , cultural studies, law and linguistics. Everywhere we go today we are bombardedRead MoreMulticultural Education And Counseling Through The Arts Program1355 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI conducted this project based on the multicultural education and counseling through the arts program also known as MECA. A community program that is currently Ã¢â¬Å"Creating a brighter future for Houston since 1977Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Homepage-MECAÃ¢â¬ , 2015). MECA is a community-based non-profit organization committed to the healthy development of underserved youth and adults through arts and cultural programming, academic excellence, support services, and community building (Ã¢â¬Å"Homepage-MECAÃ¢â¬ , 2015). MECA serves thousandsRead MoreJohn Cage s Theory Of Silence And Chance Operations1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageschallenged the idea of music, sound, and art. Because of a distinct style and the utilization of innovative mechanisms, Cage proved to be one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most original composers. He took music into a new direction creating s ounds and works that have never been performed before. Through his philosophy of silence and chance operations, John Cage distinguished the difference between sound and music; sounds possess the ability to stand independently while the creation of music depends on sounds andRead MoreThe Performance Of The Spring Concert1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOrzolek, a music education expert in the state of Minnesota, attended a state school board conference and asked a group of volunteers how they assessed their school music programs. The answers he received included, Ã¢â¬Å"No complaints or letters from parents or students, Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ concerts, Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ trips, a strong pep band for games, trophies and awards, and good numbersÃ¢â¬ (Orzolek, 2006 para. 6). Although music has been taught in public schools as a curricular subject since the 1930s, music education has struggledRead MoreSteve Jobs, An American Engineer And Entrepreneur853 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstudent Joanne Carole Schieble Ã¢â¬â let to adopt the newborn baby. The main condition for adoption was the promise of the adoptive parents to provide the child with the higher education. After graduating from high school in 1972, Steve Jobs became the student of the Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Captivated by the philosophy of Zen and Buddhism, Steve Jobs applied the principles of these teachings to all the spheres of this private and professional life. He dismissed the college after the first semesterRead MoreThe Music And Arts Program939 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswere discussed were the music and arts program being cut in half, updated information on the school districts from principals, and the French Exchange Program. During my observation, I noticed that the board members were not very responsive. At first, the environment was very uncomfortable and the meeting felt very unorganized. As the meeting continued and others took over, the meeting became friendlier and more welcoming. When the public was speaking on behalf of the music program at the school,
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Mughal Painting Essay The McHugh paintings of India revolved around themes, like battles, court scenes, receptions, legendary stories, hunting scenes, Wildlife, portraits, etc. The Victoria and Albert Museums of London house a large and impressive collection of McHugh paintings. Mogul miniature Indo. Lilacs miniature painting of court life or the natural world, produced in northern India in the ateliers (workshops) of the Mogul emperors Kafka, Changer, and Shah Johan (1 6th-17th centuries). Persian Safaris artists introduced the traditions of miniature painting from Persian art, but the atelier then developed its own unique style, combining Persian and European techniques as well as Hindu and Islamic traditions, Exquisite and meticulously detailed miniatures were painted with great realism n glowing, jewel-like colors. Many paintings were worked on by more than one artist, often both Hindu and Muslim perhaps one doing the outline, while the other colored. Islam arrived in India in the late 10th century, and subsequent waves of zealous and increasingly strong Muslim armies destroyed all Hindu and Buddhist temples between the 11th and 13th centuries. Little remains of Indians original Hindu and Buddhist art, although Persian painters employed in the Muslim courts adopted some of the characteristics of Hindu art. The first atelier was set up by the third Mogul emperor under Safaris printers. However, the emperors atelier soon became more celebrated for its miniatures. Realistic royal portraits were produced, and albums of birds, animals, and flowers were painted for Exchange, Who took over Sabas atelier when he died. Mogul miniatures remained popular during Exchangers reign, but began to decline under Shah Johan (reigned 1628-1666), as many Of the artists began to move to different courts in Ragout and Decant. Baber, the first emperor of Mussels used to identify him with the Tumid family tradition and this family was ardently devoted to the arts of the book. The paintings of early period of Mussels can be seen in a specialist organization of a palace studio or scriptorium, which was managed then by Abyssinia. This scriptorium was headed by the legendary painter Bighead of McHugh period. But unfortunately, the scriptorium broke up at the end of Hussar Bazaar s reign and Bighead was brought to Tabors by the Saving Shah Small to organize the palace studio there, Some other painters were taken to Babushka by the Zebu conqueror, Muhammad Shabbily. But the tame this scriptorium was not spoiled and it served as a model for the later built scriptorium by Human and Kafka, The McHugh emperor, Baber himself was an expert of painting and inherited the taste of his Tumid predecessors. He had to abandon his entire baggage sometimes to include a whole library of illustrated books having paintings. Baber had never a stable residence, which was needed for keeping those expensive illustrated paintings, as those were very expensive. But When became the ruler of Samaritan, he became able to stock them properly. Both Baber and Kafka were intensely attached With painting and Kafka s great-grandson Changer was popular for his naturalistic representation and also for natural history. The Persian painting in drawings and studies in albums made for the Tumid rulers of Heart and the Turncoat rulers of Shirrs and Tabors reflect their interest in naturalism. Their interest in naturalism was been motivated by Chinese drawings, paintings and textiles. This inclination towards naturalism brought a gradual revolution in the attitude of Muslim authors to painting as such. There is a common belief that Islam proscribes figural art but an attitude of conditional tolerance towards figural representation was illuminated in few South Asian Muslim paintings, In the mid-sixteenth-century, a writer officials rout librarian Dust Muhammad and the Aqua (Judge) Mad was inspired by Baber 5 style of painting. He therefore wrote a treatise on painting saying life like things should be the criteria of the paintings. Baber s interest in natural history, with which his memoirs are instilled, was even more original. One of the accounts of Mussels unfurls the tact that Baber was immensely inclined towards painting. Baber s inclination towards natural painting can be imagined from few of his lines uttered when he was approaching a sheet of water near Kabul. He said, we saw a wonderful thing something as red as the rose of the dawn kept wowing and vanishing between the sky and the water When we got quite close we learned that the cause was flocks of geese, geese innumerable which, when the mass of birds flapped their wings in flight, sometimes showed red feathers, sometimes not. According to the history, Human was not a worthy successor of rich McHugh painting. It is said so because in the early sass the Saving Shah Thomas, Whose painting studio in Tabors was the finest and the most highly specialized in the Islamic world, doubted the authenticity of commissioning so many beautifully illustrated manuscripts, at least to the extent of releasing room his service some of the finest painters of his studio. But Human s stay in Persia was good for the history of McHugh painting. During his visit he brought Mir Stayed All and bad al-Samara reputed calligrapher) to India and they established the Imperial McHugh painting studio. He continued to keep these painters even when he was still in exile and it was a considerable investment for the future painting. Mir Stayed All is said to have implemented a scene from a polo match on a gram of rice, with goal posts at each end and horsemen, two in the centre tot the field, one galloping in from a corner and a tour-the being ended a polo stick by an attendant, He had drawn some of his figure paintings in unfavorable conditions. The calligraphic skill of Bad al-Assam was displayed in the last chapter of the Koran, the Shirt al-lasts_ In that particular art work, he wrote on one side of a grain of rice, with a commentary to it on the other. Another McHugh painter of that time called Mullah Pasha was praised for his skill in drilling poppy seeds with minute holes. But, there was hardly anyone in Human s court, who was able to look for the details of such a wonderful art work. The portraits of painters in McHugh and Saving art show them wearing spectacles quite frequently and the best work of these painters were done mainly at there early young age. This is probably due to these miniature paintings done by them. It was during the reign of McHugh Emperor Human that India saw a new addition to its heritage Of miniature earl When the Emperor Human was in Safaris court of Shah Thomas l, he got introduced to Persian paintings. On his return to India, he began patronizing the Persian paintings With the help Of two proficient artists Stayed All and Abdul Assam. Their discrete style along with the integration of the local fashion of painting gave rise to distinct style of art, which became renowned as McHugh painting. During the reigns of Kafka, Changer and Shah Johan the McHugh painting refurbished and blossomed further. Temperament was a famous painter of Baber s period, whose successor at Heart and Samaritan and the Savvied painted various miniature paintings in the public rooms tot the Mussels emperors. Temperament himself is said by later historians to have ordered illustrations of his victories and feasts in various palaces built for him at Samaritan. One more painter called Shah Thomas as even reported to have decorated the Chill Stun palace at Gavin himself, with scenes including the appearance of Joseph before Photograph s wife (Kulak)_ His personal initiative might have been flatteringly exaggerated and he might not even have sketched the sort of thing he wanted but he merely specified it in detail. Kafka got decorated the walls of his private apartments at Fattener sir by the painters of his studio, but these have very little traces to hue a proper idea of them. Most Of these paintings were small in scale and not monumental. The British Museum now contains the paintings of arioso later McHugh figures, including Kafka, Changer and Prince Korma (who ruled as Shah Johan). In these paintings, the central figure is labeled as Temperament and is often said to be Human. But, there is no authenticity Of the persons in these paintings. If it was the genealogical scene of the Mussels then Baber must be the centre figure of the painting. The landscape and figures are very much in the style of court painting at Tabors in the early sass and looked so different from any McHugh painting of the later sixteenth century. When the second McHugh emperor, Human (reigned 1530-1540 and 1555-1556) as in Tabors in the Safaris court of Shah Thomas l, he was exposed to Persian miniature painting. When Human returned to India, he brought with him vivo accomplished Persian artists, Stayed All and Abdul Assam. Their works, and the assimilation of local styles during succeeding decades, gave shape to a distinct style, which became known as McHugh painting. The Titanium (literal meaning wrasses of a parrot), now in the Cleveland Museum of Art, is among the earliest examples of McHugh painting. The manuscript was made in the reign of Huntsmans son, Kafka (r, 1556-1 ASS), Another manuscript the Humanism, also dad early in Sabas reign, is said to have contained about 1400 large paintings on cotton (only a fraction have survived) and took about IS years to complete. As per the historical record, it is said that the first painting off portrait of Kafka was done by Bad al-Assam in 1551. In the Berlin album of Kafka, there is a painting of him with Hinder Mira. A later period painting of Kafka s court depicts Human in a tent. The painters recruited by Human had to change their individual style as per Kafka s taste. During Kafka s time, the Persian style Of painting disappeared gradually. Kafka is regarded as the actual patron f McHugh painting even though he was reported to be illiterate and even dyslexic. The paintings Of Sabas court included the album leaves and a bizarrely dressed, blue-eyed, wandering dervish somewhat figure. Kafka s first and greatest project was said to be the copying and illustration Of a romance already popular in India, the Ham-name, the heroic developments of the Emir Ham, a kinsman of the Prophet. Art Review: Forgotten Fence by Carolyn Rosenberger EssayIn the art Of portrait miniature Sangrias paintings work miracles. His passion for nature was unrestricted, keen observer of flowers, grass, plants, animals and birds and had fondness Of music, poetry, traveling like his ancestors, especially grandfather Baber. He had artistic and aesthetic background from his childhood had been in contact with paintings. Thats why had great involvement in that art form and patronized personally the royal atelier. Popular subject matters were court scenes, flora, fauna and birds. The choice of material reflects Sangrias own taste, The Imperial albums paintings depict Sangrias interest in Cuffs, Muslim rulers, Princess visiting ascetics. Having great affection for his pets cheetah, carrier pigeons and his consideration for the royal stud elephant was famous. He shifted Imperial Library to Lahore tromp Agar. Lahore became the enter of artistic activity. When visited Lahore found his palace decorated with many paintings. His master artists painted beautiful, refined and high quality art and McHugh miniatures reached its highest peak. His wife Nor Johan had strong personality with complete control over her husband. Due to her influence female portraits began to appear, Under Changer the fusion of style India, Persian and European gave force and individuality to McHugh painting. When Emperor Kafka was in power, the political, economic and cultural landscape had begun changing. The McHugh paintings encouraged innumerable painters ho further brought more rudiments of precision and practicality into these paintings. These renewed paintings also depicted the events from the epics of Inhabited and the Ramadan. The animal fables, Which are famous in India by the name Panchromatic, were also depicted in McHugh paintings. The portfolio of McHugh paintings is large and diverse involving the comprehensive countryside backgrounds and rudiments of individual portraiture. The artistic scenario excelled during sovereignty of Changer (1605-27). The paintings emerging during his reign illustrated scenes and events from his life. A biographical portrayal of Changer known as the Jinrikisha , which was written during his lifetime has numerous pictorial idiosyncrasies paintings. The colors used in these paintings were lighter and the brush strokes were more intricate. Human figures, flowers, animals and birds formed the various themes on which the McHugh paintings emerged during Changer reign, ABA al- Has was a painter during the McHugh period in India. Changer was the McHugh ruler during that time, ABA al-Has originally belonged to Afghanistan. It was considered the city with an artistic tradition . He was the son of Aqua Raze of Hear, Emperor Changer took the initiative to train ABA al-Has in his spacious studios and workshops. Soon he excelled his father and his employer. As an acknowledgement to his talent, Changer conferred him the title Nadir-Uzi-Shaman (Wonder of the Age). Thus ABA al-Has became the royal painter at the Durbar of Changer, He was bestowed the task of documenting events of the imperial court. This documentation resulted in striking portraits. Not many of ABA al-Has s paintings lasted, but those that distinguish him as the artist, shows that he had also worked on a varied subjects, comprising some day-to- ay scenes. Squirrels in a Plane Tree is the most famous painting created by him. Today he is unanimously associated with this painting. The painting adorns the British Library. It is regarded as masterful depiction Of animal posture and movement Such a painting as it was, could only have been deduced from direct observation. The picture portrays European squirrels, unknown in India during that time. His work indicates that Changer s zoo may have held a few of those animals. As an alternative to the fact it is also believed that on one of his travels ABA al-Has may have accompanied Changer. But the signature on the painting is perplexing, as it is signed as Nadir al-Cars (Miracle of the Age), which is the title of status Mansard. But the style of the painting decidedly does not match with Status Mansard s style. Taut there remains a possibility that both painters collaborated on this painting. The development of McHugh kingdom was drooped when Shah Johan took up the throne, The financial condition also became very severe. Therefore, as a sensible ruler he also neglected the Imperial studio of painting and concentrated more on other more important things. Most of the paintings of Shaman s time ere concentrated on the first decade of his reign. Only major manuscript done by Shah Johan was a journal, which was all about praising his reigning period. This journal covered twenty years and in it the paintings veer executed simultaneously with the texts. Despite of the financial problems, he did not cut the financial support to the painters working under his patronage. Shah Johan s painting studio tried to follow the rich culture of Changer to a considerable extent. Shah Johan s painting albums were well known for their floral margins, Which were extraordinary as well as botanically accurate but their subject matter as narrower in range. Most of the paintings were formal single portraits. For this, some Of the portraits had a misleading family likeness. For example, that identified as the ambassador of the Safaris Shah Safe, Muhammad All Beg, painted by Hashish looked similar to another portrait of a Safaris official in the British Museum who might not be the same person at all. It was evident from the paintings of State occasions like Shah Johan s accession to the throne in 1628 that his painters also readily seized any opportunity to depict figures in large groups. The naturalism of Sangrias paintings started becoming a secondary consideration during the time of Shah Johan. The individualism of the European, Muslim and Hindu elements, religious, cultural and stylistic pattern of paintings made under Kafka and Changer were missing remarkably. This reflects Shah Johan s greater commitment to Muslim orthodoxy and the rejection of the Hindu element in the McHugh state. V-or this reason, probably, Shah Johan handed over some of the painters of his studio to his much- pampered favorite son, Dare Oshkosh, who was killed in 1658. But still, the paintings of his period maintained the brilliance and gloss, the elimination of raring features, which represented in a sense a zenith of the McHugh style. During the reign of Shah Johan (1628-58), McHugh paintings continued to develop, but they gradually became cold and rigid. Themes including musical parties; lovers, sometimes in intimate positions, on terraces and gardens; and ascetics gathered around a fire, abound in the McHugh paintings of this period. Governed avgas a noted painter during the reigns of Kafka, Changer and Shah Johan. Musical events, lovers and ascetics formed the main themes Of the McHugh paintings during the reign of Shah Johan (1628-58). Shah Johan is most distinguished for his architectural feat, the Tax Mall that took 16 years for its come lotion. Style of painting, confined mainly to book illustrations and miniatures, that evolved in India during the McHugh Dynasty. McHugh paintings developed from the 16th to 18th centuries during the reign of the McHugh emperors and had a distinctive blend of Indian, Islamic and Persian styles. The close study of nature, the royal life and the aristocratic tastes, all formed the prominent hallmarks of the McHugh painting. Emperor Rearrange did not actively patronize the McHugh paintings but some f the renowned paintings were seen during his reign, Again during the rule of Muhammad Shah (1719-48), the McHugh paintings saw a short upsurge but slowly the art had begun to downfall. An endowed artist of the Delhi-based court of the McHugh emperor Muhammad Shah, India Mall kept alive the saga McHugh art by painting in illustrious Delhi style after moving to Locknutbuy I-Has, Bishop Dads, Governed and Adulate are some of the celebrated artists of the McHugh period. Rearrange (1658-1707) did not actively encourage McHugh paintings, but as this art form had gathered momentum and had a number of patrons, McHugh paintings intended to survive, but the decline had set in. Some sources however note that a few Of the best McHugh paintings were made for Rearrange, speculating that the painters may have realized that he was about to close the workshops and thus exceeded themselves in his behalf. A brief revival was noticed during the reign of Muhammad Shah Rearrange (1719-48), but by the time of Shah Lam II (1759-1806), the art of McHugh painting had lost its glory. By that time, other schools of Indian painting had developed, including, in the royal courts of the Ragout kingdoms of Restaurant, Ragout painting and in the cities ruled by he British East India Company, the Company style under Western influence, The McHugh paintings depicted events from the various aspects of the erstwhile McHugh Empire, These paintings portrayed the scenes from the battlefields, hunting sports, the wild elite and animals and also the court scenes. One of the McHugh paintings illustrate a prince and his companions smoking a Hausa , in the presence tot beautiful ladies in the lovely environs of a walled fort gardens. The hunting scene in the McHugh paintings corresponded to a classic genre that depicted royal hunts and the general portray of the royal life. McHugh Painting that emerged during the reign of McHugh Empire around 16-19th centuries was limited to the images on the books and albums filled with paintings, calligraphic prints and ornamental borders. These splendid albums full of McHugh paintings were enveloped in leather, which was gilded, embossed and painted. In the initial phases the technique often involved a team of artists, one determined the composition a second did the actual coloring and a specialist in portraiture worked on individual faces. Probably the earliest example of McHugh painting is the illustrated folktale Tutu-name (Tale of a Parrot).