Wednesday, October 30, 2019

How does the plate tectonics theory help explain the existence of Essay

How does the plate tectonics theory help explain the existence of fossilized marine life in rocks atop the Ural Mountains Be sure to include a description of the specific process(es) - Essay Example With time, the fossils collected and accumulated on the sea bed. Geologists describe the area on which the mountains exist to be at the edge of two active tectonic plates: Baltica and Siberia. The tectonic plates are considered to be constructive plates. The two tectonic plates collided and their forces pushed the plates against one another in a constant force. The force was so intense that it pushed the earth’s crust beyond its elastic limit. With time the earth’s crust got compressed as folded upwards resulting to the Ural Mountains. This was a gradual process that lasted for many years. The area that was formerly covered by the Palaeoralic Ocean was now part of the Ural Mountains. It took with it the fossil remains that was on the sea bed. The water that was contained in the ocean was displaced as result of rise in altitude of the area. Considering that the fossils had been in existence for over millions of years and that they were several of kilometers deep, it was impossible for the environmental factors like rain to completely wear out the fossil remains (Wright, 1977). In addition, the weight of the water along with other forces had compacted together the fossils forming semimetal rocks which currently exist on the top of Ural Mountains. This theory unlike other theories is credible and fully arguable especially in its endeavor to explain the existence of sedimentary rocks atop the Ural

Monday, October 28, 2019

Identifying Illogical Fallacy And Arguments Philosophy Essay

Identifying Illogical Fallacy And Arguments Philosophy Essay Have you wondered the truth behind some peoples logic when considering why they believe what they do or why they believe it is true based upon their own interpretation? In almost every aspect of life there is some underlying reason that people conform or believe in things, whether its regarded as truth or fallacy. Most people would argue that there is a higher power in terms of religion while most or others will disagree that there is no such existence because they have not seen him personally. An argument can be said to be the exchanging of opposing views by means of persuasion in asserting that a view or purpose is true or false; right or wrong. Philosophers in history have argued that there is error in reasoning in the causation of life and this is can be referred to as a fallacy. A fallacy can be an intentional act or unintentional act or line of reasoning. There are several illogical fallacies beginning with a mere assertion. Mere Assertion: An illogical fallacy based up on the belief that an argument is true because you believe in it. In other words, if you argue that the sky is black ant is something that you believe or feel strongly about, and then it is presumed true. Clearly, any other person would note that the sky is never black and is in fact blue at all time. However, in this case, it is true because you believe it. Circular Reasoning: circular reasoning is the argument that suggests that whatever the argument may be, as long as the conclusion of an argument supports the premise (justifiable claim) then it is true. In simpler terms, the reason for the argument is also the reason in the conclusion. There must be evidence to prove that what you are arguing is a valid argument. For example: Reading is an excellent practice in learning as it helps to enhance ones knowledge. It is clear that reading does assist in learning new things but reading alone does not promote being more knowledgeable but it does assist in the learning processes. Ad Hominem: Ad Hominem is an arguments reasoning associated with demeaning the opposition relevant to the argument. My 4 year old I famous for this because whenever he does something he is not supposed to do or I asked him not to do, and I get on him because of his behavior, he attempts to divert my attention away for the purpose of preventing himself for getting a spanking or yelled at. He may say things like I just love you so much or Mommy can I give you a hug. Another example is when my mother and I get into arguments about the rude ways she speaks to me; she brings up the topic of money because she wants to control my income. Because we are already in a heated argument, she includes other things in the argument that are irrelevant to her rude ways when conversing. Red Herring: A form of drawing attention away for means of confusion and irrelevant subjects within an argument. Red herring is a part of an argument where the parties intend to manipulate the argument by including irrelevant reasoning and allow the opposing party to consider the irrelevant information pulling away from the initial reason for the argument. For example: An employee is in trouble with his boss for not completely assignments timely and being rude to clients. The employee mentions other employees who mingle in the workplace and take personal calls pretending to be talking business with clients. In this situation, the employee is attempting to influence his boss to consider the quality of others work in order to reduce the tension between the boss and himself. Pseudo Questions: Pseudo questions can be defined as rhetorical questions which mean that they cannot be answered. Pseudo question can be simple question that are hard to answer because the person who supposed to answer has no knowledge of the topic. A question by Billy Corgon asks If practice makes perfect and no one is perfect, then why practice? Or George Corlin asks Why do doctors call the work a practice? Isnt what they learned a skill? False Cause: False cause is a fallacy that suggests that something is the result of something else. This fallacy is similar to determinism where every event has a cause. An example of false cause: Tyler Perry became famous, a great writer and actor because he gained experience from living on the streets and being homeless. If this were true, then all homeless people would become actors because they lived on the street thus gaining experience. Sweeping generalizations: The fallacy that says if one assumes that all incidents of reason are applied to every situation. Furthermore, sweeping generalizations accepts the sense that there are no exceptions to generalization. For example: People who dont eat pork are Muslims. You are a Muslim because you dont eat pork. In this case, not eating pork can be for religious purposes but also can apply to the fact that the person is a vegetarian thus invalidating the argument because there is an exception to this argument. Slippery Slope: Suggests that a cause of events will continuously occur because one thing causes another. In other words, by chance one thing will finally lead to the last. Consider the slippery slope fallacy in this situation. Not wearing a coat in the winter will cause you to catch a cold eventually. How does this occur? Well first you get the sniffles and maybe allergy like symptoms (i.e. stuffy nose, clogged ears, runny eyes) following maybe changes in your body temperature then eventually you will cough which signifies that you have caught a cold. Any human knows that if you act carelessly in the winter, you will be subjected to catching a cold and being sick. Being sick is not fun right? Equivocation or Changing Means: Altering the meaning of a word in the course of an argument. Christmas celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ and is a time of happiness therefore the birth of Jesus Christ must too be full of happiness. This example signals that both implications of the argument produces happiness (i.e. Christmas and the birth of Jesus Christ); Jesus himself being full of happiness because his birth was full of happiness.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Hamlet - Shakespeares Ophelia as Modern Icon Essay -- Hamlet essays

Hamlet - Shakespeare's Ophelia as Modern Icon Shakespeare's Ophelia is not lacking in attention. As one of Shakespeare's most popular female characters she has enjoyed many appellations from the bard. '"Fair Ophelia." "Most beautified Ophelia." "Pretty Ophelia." "Sweet Ophelia." "Dear Ophelia." "Beautiful Ophelia†¦sweet maid†¦poor wretch." "Poor Ophelia."' (Vest 1) All of these names for Ophelia can be found in Shakespeare's The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Since Shakespeare's incarnation of Ophelia many have felt the need to offer their opinions of Ophelia as a character. '"Poor wispy Ophelia." "Devastated and emotionally exhausted Ophelia." "Pensive, fair-haired, blue-eyed daughter of the north." "Ophelia the young, the beauteous, the harmless, the pious." "Clumsy Ophelia†¦open-hearted but light-brained†¦incapable either of understanding or of curing." "A weak creature, wanting in truthfulness, in purpose, in force of character, and only interesting when she loses the little wits she had."' (Vest 1 ) These are only a few of the hundreds. For a character that only appears in five of the 20 scenes in Hamlet, Ophelia has garnered a great deal of attention from analysts, critics, artists, actresses, fiction writers, psychologists, and adolescent girls alike. Readers are consistently struck by her character that seems relatively insignificant in the grand scheme of things. Ophelia is many times viewed as only important in relation to Hamlet and the effect she has on him. Ophelia is not just important in this respect, but also in respect to what she tells us about the society she came out of and the society we live in today. First analyzing Shakespeare and his precursors then concentrating on the modern day prominence of ... ...s Write About Their Search For Self. New York: Harper Collins, 1999. Vest, James M. The French Face of Ophelia from Belleforest to Baudelaire. Lanham: University Press of America, 1989. Appendix 1 "Ophelia's Legs (Voyeur in a Small Town)" From Dead Snakes, Cats and the IRS, Poetry of Rock and Rebellion I watch eyes thinking of an old free man's story, seeing slanted gilts of light cat-backed mountains bristling in the distance there is an Ophelia's legs softer than blood in the trail she's unfolded toward crossed by dove's flight and spider tip-toeing- the angle determines what will notice- each's earth fingers reach through as quietly as they must be found. I see this woman, her lovers, some have been mine. The days damn here, filigreed as hair or knowing -Theresa Courtney Gillespie

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Formal Letter

Poor Maintenance of Taman JayadiriI am writing this letter on behalf of the residents of Taman Jayadiri to complain about the dismal conditions we have been putting up with for the past three months. 2. One of the main grouses of the residents concerns uncollected rubbish (point 1). Initially, rubbish was collected three times a week. However, since June this year the garbage collectors have only been coming once a week. Our litter bins are always filled to the brim and we have no choice but to leave our bags of rubbish next to the bins. The rotting waste causes a terrible stench (point 2). Worse still, stray cats and dogs scatter the rubbish (point 3) while looking for food. This is not only unpleasant but also unhealthy.3. Most of the drains in Taman Jayadiri are clogged (point 4) with rubbish resulting in the water becoming stagnant. It is not uncommon to see plastic bags, bottles and dry leaves in these drains. There is an urgent need to clear these drains as the stagnant water i s an idealbreeding ground for mosquitoes (point 5). The residents are worried as there has been a sharp increase in dengue cases (point 6) in the last two months.4. The street lights along several roads are also not working (point 7). This has caused several accidents at night (point 8), mostly involving motorcyclists as they are unable to see in the dark. Unfortunately, the dark streets have also led to another problem – an increase in crime (point 9). Several residents, especially women, have fallen victim to snatch thieves. 5. The one and only playground in our area is also not well-maintained (point 10). The grass is  overgrown (point 11) as it has not been cut for almost three months. Besides, the playground equipment is damaged (point 12). Many of the see-saws and swings have been spoiled by vandals. I hope the council will look into our complaints and take prompt action to solve our problems. Thank you.Yours faithfully,Raisya Zahraa Binti Hairul Hisyam Suggestions On the Changes Need To Be Done To The LibraryMy intention of writing this letter is to inform you that our school library needs changesto attract more students to visit it. In relation to that, I would like to offer my suggestionson the changes need to be done to the library. 2. The number of novels should be increased as the fiction section lacks books. Manystudents feel disappointed because they cannot find their favourite novels in the library.Besides, the library needs to have dictionaries of the latest edition since the present dictionaries are not up to date and they are not really helpful to students in completing the English assignment 3. The shelves and furniture should be rearranged because the positions are notconducive to reading.During peak hours many students have to sit on the floor and between shelves and this hinder them from reading comfortably. The wall need to berepainted as well for the reason that the dull wall colour kills the students’ inter est inspending their free time in the library. Some said the colour encourages them to sleep while reading. 4. Apart from that, the library needs more fans or be air-conditioned due to   poor ventilation. Many students cannot stand the heat especially during the afternoon hours.Moreover, more librarians should be placed at the counter because of the long queue during recess.A few will miss their meals and might lose concentration later in class due to hunger. 5. It is my hope that you will view my suggestions and comments constructively anddo something to upgrade the conditions of the library in order to create a conducive reading environment. Thank you.Yours faithfully, Raisya (RAISYA ZAHRAA BT HAIRUL HISYAM)Letter of ComplaintRaju a/l Lingam, 123 A, Lorong Bahagia, Taman Sentosa, 07231 Bandar Baru Sentol, KelantanThe President, Bandar Baru Sentol Council, Kompleks Utama, 07200 Bandar Baru Sentol 16 JUNE 2011Dear Sir, Uncollected Rubbish and Clogged DrainsI am writing this letter is to attract your attention to the above title. As the representative of the community, I am calling to tell you that the 300 odd residents living in Taman Sentosa are extremely unhappy about the lackadaisical attitude of the local town council towards the uncollected  rubbish and clogged drains in our area.2. The rubbish in our area has not been collected for more than a week. The rubbish is supposed to be collected on alternate days but this has not been the case. The town council workers collect the rubbish according to their own whims and fancies. The uncollected garbage has attracted not only flies and mosquitoes but also wild dogs which had attacked the residents on several occasions. These stray animals also scatter the rubbish and make the roads dirty and smelly. As a result, residents have to bear the discomfort of stench from the garbage and risk their health.3. We are also disappointed with the town council workers for not clearing the clogged drains which are filled with rubbish. The drains would usually overflow when there is heavy rain and the rubbish would then flow into the compounds of our houses. Besides, putting up with the unbearable stench emitted from them, the residents have to spend hours cleaning their compounds of rotten vegetables, food leftovers and other rubbish.4. Due to dengue outbreak recently, we are really concerned about the residents’ health especially the children. Fogging service also was not done accordingly to the schedule. The fogging authority only did their job whenever a case of dengue aroused. They even fogging the neighbourhood late at night that caused us to leave the residents. They need to consider the residents who have babies and also to those who need to wake up early in the morning for work. The fogging also caused the people to have breathing problem when we were not told the exact time of fogging.5. We have made numerous appeals to the Municipal Council to look into our complaints but to no avai l. We have been putting up with this predicament for more than a week. We hope the health authorities would do something to check these health hazards.Thank you.Yours faithfully,

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Bloodlines Chapter Twenty-Two

CLARENCE DIDN'T WANT to talk to us about what had happened. In fact, he adamantly denied anything was wrong, claiming he'd scratched his neck while shaving. â€Å"Mr. Donahue,† I said as gently as I could, â€Å"this was made by a surgical tool. And it didn't happen until Keith visited.† â€Å"No, no,† Clarence managed in a weak voice. â€Å"It has nothing to do with him.† Dorothy stuck her head in just then, carrying a glass of juice. We'd called for her shortly after my arrival tonight. For blood loss, the remedies were the same for Moroi and human alike: sugar and fluids. She offered the glass to him with a straw, her lined face filled with concern. I continued my pleas as he drank. â€Å"Tell us what your deal is,† I begged. â€Å"What's the arrangement? What's he giving you for your blood?† When Clarence remained silent, I tried another tactic. â€Å"People are being hurt. He's giving out your blood indiscriminately.† That got a reaction. â€Å"No,† said Clarence. â€Å"He's using my blood and saliva to heal people. To heal sick humans.† Saliva? I nearly groaned. Of course. The mysterious clear liquid. Now I knew what gave the celestial tattoos their addictive high. Gross. Adrian and I exchanged glances. Healing certainly was a use for vampire blood. The tattoo I wore was proof of that, and the Alchemists had worked long trying to duplicate some of the blood's properties for wider medicinal use. So far, there was no way to synthetically reproduce it, and using real blood simply wasn't practical. â€Å"He lied,† I replied. â€Å"He's selling it to rich teenagers to help them with sports. What did he promise you for it? A cut of the money?† Adrian glanced around the opulent room. â€Å"He doesn't need money. The only thing he needs is what the guardians wouldn't give him. Justice for Tamara, right?† Surprised, I turned back to Clarence and saw Adrian's words confirmed on the old Moroi's face. â€Å"He†¦ he's been investigating the vampire hunters for me,† he said slowly. â€Å"He says he's close. Close to finding them out.† I shook my head, wanting to kick myself for not having figured out sooner that Clarence was the blood source. It explained why Keith was always unexpectedly here – and why he got so upset when I showed up without warning. My â€Å"fraternizing with vampires† had had nothing to do with it. â€Å"Sir, I guarantee the only thing he's investigating is how to spend the money he's been making.† â€Å"No†¦ no†¦ he's going to help me find the hunters who killed Tamara†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I stood up. I couldn't stand to hear any more. â€Å"Get him some real food, and see what he'll eat,† I told Dorothy. â€Å"If he's only weak from blood loss, he just needs time.† I nodded for Adrian to follow me out. As we walked toward the living room, I remarked, â€Å"Well, there are good and bad sides to this. At least we can be confident Keith's got a fresh supply of blood for us to bust him with. I'm just sorry Clarence had to get hit so – â€Å" I froze as I entered the living room. I'd simply wanted to go there because it would be a familiar place to discuss our plans, one that was less creepy than Clarence's bedroom. Considering how my imagination often ran wild while I was in this old house, I'd found that few things came as a surprise. But never in my wildest dreams had I imagined the living room would be transformed into an art gallery. Easels and canvas were set up all around the room. Even the pool table was covered by a big roll of paper. The pictures varied wildly in their content. Some simply had splashes of color thrown on them. Some possessed astonishingly realistic depictions of objects and people. An assortment of watercolors and oil paints sat around amidst the art. For a moment, all thoughts of Clarence and Keith disappeared from my head. â€Å"What is this?† â€Å"Homework,† Adrian said. â€Å"Didn't you†¦ didn't you just start your classes? How could they have assigned this much?† He walked over to a canvas showing a swirling red line traced over a black cloud and lightly tested to see if the paint was dry. Studying it, I tried to decide if I really was seeing a cloud. There was almost something anthropomorphic about it. â€Å"Of course they didn't give us this much, Sage. But I had to make sure I nailed my first assignment. Takes a lot of tries before you hit perfection.† He paused to reconsider that. â€Å"Well, except for my parents. They got it on the first try.† I couldn't help a smile. After watching Adrian's moods oscillate so wildly in the last couple weeks, it was nice to see them on the upswing. â€Å"Well, this is kind of amazing,† I admitted. â€Å"What are they? I mean, I get that one.† I pointed to a painting of a woman's eye, brown and long-lashed, and then to another one of roses. â€Å"But the others are open to, um, slightly more creative interpretation.† â€Å"Are they?† asked Adrian, turning back to the smoky painting with the red streak. â€Å"I figured it was obvious. This one is Love. Don't you see it?† I shrugged. â€Å"Maybe I don't have an artistic enough mind.† â€Å"Maybe,† he agreed. â€Å"Once we bust your buddy Keith, we'll discuss my genius art all you want.† â€Å"Right,† I said, growing serious again. â€Å"We need to search his place for evidence. I figured the best way to do that is if I lure him out and you break in while he's gone. To get through the lock – â€Å" Adrian waved me off. â€Å"I can pick a lock. How do you think I got into my parents' liquor cabinet in middle school?† â€Å"Should've guessed,† I said dryly. â€Å"Make sure you look everywhere, not just in obvious places. He could have compartments hidden in the walls or in furniture. You want to find vials of blood or metallic liquid or even the tool that pierced Clarence.† â€Å"Got it.† We hashed out a few more details – including who he should call when he found something – and were about to leave when he asked, â€Å"Sage, why'd you pick me to be your partner in crime in this?† I thought about it. â€Å"Process of elimination, I guess. Jill's supposed to be kept out of trouble. Eddie'd be a good asset, but he needed to go back with her and Lee. Besides, I already knew you didn't have any moral qualms about breaking and entering.† â€Å"That's the nicest thing you've ever said to me,† he declared with a grin. We headed out to Keith's after that. All the lights were on in the first floor of his building, dashing a last-minute hope I'd had that maybe I wouldn't have to lure him out. I would've actually liked to help with the search. I dropped Adrian off and then drove to a twenty-four-hour restaurant that was outside the opposite side of town. I figured it would be perfect for keeping Keith away from his home. The driving time alone would provide Adrian with extra searching time, though it meant Adrian had to wait outside for a while until Keith left. Once I finally arrived, I got a table, ordered coffee, and dialed Keith's number. â€Å"Hello?† â€Å"Keith, it's me. I need to talk to you.† â€Å"So talk,† he said. He sounded smug and confident, no doubt happy at pulling off the last-minute tattoo sale. â€Å"Not on the phone. I need you to meet me.† â€Å"At Amberwood?† he asked in surprise. â€Å"Isn't it after hours?† It was indeed, but that was a problem for later. â€Å"I'm not at school. I'm at Margaret's Diner, that place out by the highway.† Long silence. Then: â€Å"Well, if you're already out past curfew, then just come here.† â€Å"No,† I said firmly. â€Å"You come to me.† â€Å"Why should I?† I hesitated only briefly before playing the card I knew would get him, the one thing that would make him drive out here and not raise suspicions about the tattoos. â€Å"It's about Carly.† â€Å"What about her?† he asked after a moment's pause. â€Å"You know exactly what.† After a second's pause, Keith relented and hung up. I noticed that I had a voice mail from earlier in the day that I hadn't heard come in. I called and listened. â€Å"Sydney, this is Wes Regan from Carlton College. Just wanted to go over a couple things with you. First, I'm afraid I have some bad news. It doesn't look like I'm going to be able to retroactively admit your brother from auditor status. I can enroll him next semester for sure if he stays in good standing, but the only way he can keep taking classes now is if he continues to do so as an auditor. He won't be able to get financial aid as a result, and in fact, you'll actually need to pay the auditing fee soon if he's going to stay in the classes. If he wants to drop altogether, we can do that too. Just call me and let me know what you'd like to do.† I stared at the phone in dismay when the message was over. There went our dreams of sliding Adrian into fully enrolled student status, not to mention his dreams of getting financial aid and moving out of Clarence's. The next semester probably started in January, so Adrian was facing four more months at Clarence's. Adrian would also be facing four more months of bus-riding and taking classes without college credit. But were the credits and financial aid really the most important things here? I thought back to how excited Adrian had been after only a couple classes, how he'd thrown himself into the art. His face had been radiant when he stood in his â€Å"gallery.† Jill's words also echoed through my mind, about how the art had given him something to channel his feelings into and made the bond easier for her to cope with. Those classes were good for both of them. How much was an auditing fee? I wasn't sure but knew it wasn't as much as tuition. It was also a onetime cost that I could probably slide into my expenses without raising the attention of the Alchemists. Adrian needed those classes, of that I was certain. If he knew financial aid wasn't an option this semester, there was a good chance he'd just drop them altogether. I couldn't allow that. He'd known there might be â€Å"a delay† while the financial aid came together. If I could keep him going to Carlton a little longer, then maybe he'd get invested enough in the art that he'd stay on, even when the truth came out. It was a sneaky thing to do, but it would benefit him – and Jill – in the end. I dialed back Wes Regan's office, knowing I'd get his voice mail. I left him a message saying that I'd drop off a check for the auditing fee and that Adrian would stay on until he could be enrolled next semester. I hung up, saying a silent prayer that it would take a while for Adrian to find out any of this. The waitress kept giving me the evil eye over just having coffee, so I finally ordered a piece of pie to go. She had just set the carton down on my table when an irritated Keith entered the restaurant. He stood in the doorway, looking around impatiently until he saw me. â€Å"Okay, what's going on?† he demanded, making a big show of sitting down. â€Å"What's so important that you felt the need to break school rules and drag me halfway across town?† For a moment, I froze up. Looking into Keith's eyes – real and artificial – triggered all the conflicting feelings I'd had about him this last year. Fear and anxiety over what I was trying to pull off warred with the deep hate I'd long carried. Baser instincts wanted me to make him suffer, to throw something at him. Like the pie. Or a chair. Or a baseball bat. â€Å"I – â€Å" Before I could say another word, my phone chimed. I looked down and read a text message from Adrian: GOT IT. CALL MADE. ONE HOUR. I slipped the phone into my purse and exhaled. It had taken Keith twenty minutes to get here, and during that time, Adrian had been dutifully searching the apartment. He'd apparently been successful. Now it was up to me to delay Keith until reinforcements showed up. One hour was actually a lot less time than I'd expected. I'd given Adrian Stanton's phone number, and she would've dispatched whatever Alchemists were closest. I'd figured that would mean Los Angeles, but it was hard to say with the scope of our jobs. If there were Alchemists on the east side of the city, they'd get here very quickly. It was also possible they could cut time by simply flying a private jet in. â€Å"What's that?† asked Keith irritably. â€Å"A text from one of your vampire friends?† â€Å"You can stop the act,† I said. â€Å"I know you don't really care about me ‘getting too close' to them.† I hadn't intended this to be the topic that distracted him, but I'd take it. â€Å"Of course I do. I worry about your soul.† â€Å"Is that why you called my dad?† I asked. â€Å"Is that the reason you wanted me out of Palm Springs?† â€Å"It's for your own good,† he said, putting on that holier-than-thou air. â€Å"Do you know how wrong it was that you even wanted this job in the first place? No Alchemist would. But you, you practically begged for it.† â€Å"Yeah,† I said, feeling my anger rise. â€Å"So Zoe wouldn't have to do it.† â€Å"Tell yourself that if you want. I know the truth. You like these creatures.† â€Å"Why does it have to be so cut-and-dried? In your view, I either have to hate them or be in league with them. There's a middle ground, you know. I can still be loyal to the Alchemists and on friendly terms with vampires and dhampirs.† Keith looked at me like I was ten years old. â€Å"Sydney, you're such an innocent. You don't understand the ways of the world like I do.† I knew all about his â€Å"ways of the world† and would've said as much if the waitress hadn't come by to take his drink order just then. When she was gone, Keith continued his spiel. â€Å"I mean, how do you even know you're feeling the way you do? Vampires can compel, you know. They use mind control. Spirit users like Adrian are really good at it. For all we know, he's been using his powers to endear himself to you.† I thought of all the times I'd wanted to shake some sense into Adrian. â€Å"He's not doing a very good job, then.† We bickered back and forth about this, and for once, I was glad of Keith's obstinacy and refusal to see reason. The longer he argued with me, the more time the Alchemists had to get to his apartment. If Stanton had told Adrian one hour, she probably meant it. Still, it was best to be safe. My breaking point came when Keith said, â€Å"You should be glad I'm looking out for you like this. This is about more than vampires, you know. I'm teaching you life lessons. You memorize books but don't understand people. You don't know how to connect to them. You're going to carry this same naive attitude with you into the real world, thinking everyone means well, and someone – some guy, probably – will just take advantage of you.† â€Å"Well,† I snapped, â€Å"you'd know all about that, wouldn't you?† Keith snorted. â€Å"I have no interest in you, rest easy.† â€Å"I'm not talking about me! I'm talking about Carly.† So. Here it was. The original purpose of our meeting. â€Å"What's she have to do with anything?† Keith kept his tone steady, but I saw it. The slightest flicker of anxiety in his eye. â€Å"I know what happened between you guys. I know what you did to her.† He became very interested in stirring ice around with his straw. â€Å"I didn't do anything to her. I have no idea what you're talking about.† â€Å"You know exactly what I'm talking about! She told me. She came to me afterward.† I leaned forward, feeling confident. â€Å"What do you think my dad would do if he found out? What would yours do?† Keith looked up sharply. â€Å"If you're so certain something terrible happened, then why doesn't your dad already know? Huh? Maybe because Carly knows there's nothing to tattle on. Anything we did, she wanted to, believe me.† â€Å"You are such a liar,† I hissed. â€Å"I know what you did. You raped her. And you will never suffer enough for it. You should've lost both of your eyes.† He stiffened at the reference to his eyes. â€Å"That's harsh. And has nothing to do with any of this. What the hell's happened to you, Sydney? How'd you turn into such a bitch? Maybe making you associate with vampires and dhampirs has caused more damage than we realized. First thing tomorrow, I'm going to call Stanton and ask that they pull you now. No waiting until the end of the week. You need to be away from this dark influence.† He shook his head and gave me a look both condescending and pitying. â€Å"No, you need to be re-educated, period. It should've happened a long time ago, as soon as they caught you busting out that murderer.† â€Å"Don't change the topic.† I spoke haughtily, though he'd again woken a sliver of fear in me. What if Adrian and I failed? What if the Alchemists listened to Keith and hauled me away? He'd never have to worry about me again in a re-education center. â€Å"This isn't about me. We were talking about Carly.† Keith rolled his eyes in annoyance. â€Å"I'm done talking about your slutty sister.† That was when my earlier impulse to throw something at him won out. Lucky for him, it was only my coffee and not a chair. Also lucky for him: the coffee had cooled considerably. There was still a lot of it left, and it managed to splash everywhere, drenching his unfortunate choice of a white shirt. He stared at me in astonishment, sputtering to get his words out. â€Å"You bitch!† he said, standing up. As he started moving toward the door, I realized that my temper might have just blown the plan. I hurried over and caught hold of his arm. â€Å"Wait, Keith. I-I'm sorry. Don't go.† He jerked his arm away and glared at me. â€Å"It's too late for you. You had your chance and blew it.† I grabbed him again. â€Å"No, no. Wait. There's still lots we have to talk about.† He opened his mouth with some snippy remark and then promptly shut it. He studied me for several seconds, his face growing serious. â€Å"Are you trying to keep me here? What's going on?† When I couldn't muster a response, he pulled away and stormed out the door. I quickly ran back to the table and tossed a twenty on it. I grabbed the pie and told the bewildered waitress to keep the change. The clock in my car told me I had twenty minutes until the Alchemists were supposed to show up at Keith's. That was also the time it would take to get back there. I drove right behind him, making no effort to hide my presence. It was no secret now that something was going on, something I'd lured him away from home for. I blessed every red light that stopped us, praying he wouldn't arrive too early. If he did, Adrian and I were going to have to delay him. It wouldn't be impossible, but it also wasn't something I wanted to do. We finally made it back. Keith pulled into his building's tiny lot, and I parked uncaringly in a fire zone out front. I was only steps behind him as he ran to the door, but he hardly seemed to notice. His attention was on the lit-up windows of his building and the dark silhouettes barely discernible beyond the heavy drapes. He burst in through the door, and I followed a moment later, nearly running into him as he came to a complete standstill. I didn't know the three suited men there with Adrian, but I knew they were Alchemists. They had that cold, polished feel that we all strove for, and their cheeks were emblazoned with gold lilies. One was going through Keith's kitchen cupboards. Another had a notepad and was talking to Adrian, who was leaning against the wall and smoking. He smiled when he saw me. The third Alchemist was kneeling on the floor in the living room near a small storage cupboard in the wall. A tacky painting of a shirtless woman's back lay nearby, which apparently had been used to hide the compartment. Its wooden door had clearly been forcibly opened, and various contents were strewn haphazardly around – with a few exceptions. The Alchemist was going to great pains to sort one pile of objects: metal tubes and needles used to drain blood, along with vials of blood and small packets of silvery powder. He looked up at our sudden entrance and fixed Keith with a cool smile. â€Å"Ah, so glad you're here, Mr. Darnell. We were hoping we could take you with us for some questioning.† Keith's face fell.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Analyzing Death and Justice essays

Analyzing Death and Justice essays If your own flesh and blood were brutally murdered, would you want the culprit to live the rest of their life in a cell, or be forced to meet the same fate your innocent loved one did? This is the question that former New York City mayor, Edward I. Koch, addresses in his 1985 article, Death and Justice, which was printed in The New Republic, a magazine that generally publishes articles dealing with controversial political issues. Koch claims the death penalty is just and defends his statement by using his former public service as ethos, strong language and concrete examples as pathos, and by disproving capital punishment rebuttals as a means of developing logos. Because the readers of this magazine are usually actively involved in political issues, Koch does not have to soften up his paper. He is aiming to prove a point, and the politically sound readers are not going to be scared away by concrete examples and strong language. Appealing to pathos, this article is very upfront and immediately reveals the authors standing on the matter. In the first paragraph, he gives rather absurd examples of convicted murderers pleading for their lives. Robert Lee Willie (who raped and murdered an 18 year old woman) said that, Killing people is wrong...It makes no difference whether its citizens, countries, or governments. Killing is wrong. The pure ridiculousness of cold-blooded killers claiming killing is wrong makes the reader question anti-capital punishment views. Koch goes on to reiterate the absurdity of such claims saying: It is a curiosity of modern life that we find ourselves being lectured on morality by cold-blooded killers. He then reveals his standing by saying that he believes life is precious and that the death penalty reinforces its preciousness. The reinforcing of justice that the death penalty accomplishes is made clear by the example of a convicted killer, Luis Vera, sayin...

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Last Lecture- Reflection Essays - Educational Psychology

The Last Lecture- Reflection Essays - Educational Psychology The Last Lecture- Reflection Jose Martinez The preparation and work I did for the "teaching" The Last Lecture and the preparation I did for the creation of the web site are similar in many ways. I put a lot of effort and work into the creation of the presentation however I also put as much effort and work into the presentation or "teaching" part. Both jobs took time and effort however the presentation was a lot harder since I am not a good presenter to an audience. The experience of the personal web site produced a more learning for me personally because the creating of the personal website required me to go back into the book and do research on the topics I was suppose to present. It helped because it allowed me to absorb the information and not have it manipulated during the presentation as a different point of view. The following list describes all of the different reading, writing, speaking, and producing activities that helped me reached the final product. Re-reading the chapters Writing down key notes Discussing it with my group Arguing to see which form of presentation we should use The best form of becoming an expert of my section of the book was by rereading the section and becoming familiar with the information provided. Some information I learned from the book was the through perseverance and dedication anything is possible. No matter how much time it takes to leave a legacy it is worth leaving the right one that truly defines you as who you were. No matter how big the obstacle is it can always be overcome if you have the passion and dedication to overcome it. What I've learned from having to prepare a presentation that was responsible for the learning of my peers that no matter what you do you have to present the information in a way that they would understand. Although you might feel nervous about presenting to your peers its important to present the information in way that makes sense but also that the viewers are actually absorbing the material that you are presenting. I think that I learned more from this type of assessment than I would have if it were given to me in a more traditional "test" because my fellow classmates were the ones who presented the material in a way that I full understood the first time they said it. This made it easier to comprehend the full story while still being able to understand the moral of the story. The knowledge and the experience from this assignment will help me improve on better speech and better ways of research and presenting material to an audience.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The History Behind Sociology

The History Behind Sociology Although sociology has its roots in the works of philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, and Confucius, it is a relatively new academic discipline. It emerged in the early 19th century in response to the challenges of modernity. Increasing mobility and technological advances resulted in the increasing exposure of people to cultures and societies different from their own. The impact of this exposure was varied, but for some people, it included the breakdown of traditional norms and customs and warranted a revised understanding of how the world works. Sociologists responded to these changes by trying to understand what holds social groups together and also to explore possible solutions to the breakdown of social solidarity. Thinkers of the Enlightenment period in the 18th century also helped set the stage for the sociologists who would follow. This period was the first time in history that thinkers tried to provide general explanations of the social world. They were able to detach themselves, at least in principle, from expounding some existing ideology and to attempt to lay down general principles that explained social life. The Birth of Sociology as a Discipline The term sociology was coined by French philosopher Auguste Comte in 1838, who for this reason is known as the â€Å"Father of Sociology.† Comte felt that science could be used to study the social world. Just as there are testable facts regarding gravity and other natural laws, Comte thought that scientific analyses could also discover the laws governing our social lives. It was in this context that Comte introduced the concept of positivism to sociology - a way to understand the social world based on scientific facts. He believed that, with this new understanding, people could build a better future. He envisioned a process of social change in which sociologists played crucial roles in guiding society. Other events of that time period also influenced the development of sociology. The 19th and 20th centuries were times of many social upheavals and changes in the social order that interested the early sociologists. The political revolutions sweeping Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries led to a focus on social change and the establishment of social order that still concerns sociologists today. Many early sociologists were also concerned with the Industrial Revolution and the rise of capitalism and socialism. Additionally, the growth of cities and religious transformations were causing many changes in people’s lives. Other classical theorists of sociology from the late 19th and early 20th centuries include Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim,  Max Weber, W.E.B. DuBois, and Harriet Martineau. As pioneers in sociology, most of the early sociological thinkers were trained in other academic disciplines, including history, philosophy, and economics. The diversity of their training is reflected in the topics they researched, including religion, education, economics, inequality, psychology, ethics, philosophy, and theology. These pioneers of sociology all had a vision of using sociology to call attention to social concerns and bring about social change. In Europe, for example, Karl Marx teamed with wealthy industrialist Friedrich Engels to address class inequality. Writing during the Industrial Revolution, when many factory owners were lavishly wealthy and many factory workers despairingly poor, they attacked the rampant inequalities of the day and focused on the role of capitalist economic structures in perpetuating these inequalities. In Germany, Max Weber was active in politics while in France, Emile Durkheim advocated for educational reform. In Britain, Harriet Martineau advocated for the rights of girls and women, and in the U.S., W.E.B. DuBois focused on the problem of racism. The Modern History of Sociology The growth of sociology as an academic discipline in the United States coincided with the establishment and upgrading of many universities that were including a new focus on graduate departments and curricula on â€Å"modern subjects.† In 1876, Yale University’s William Graham Sumner taught the first course identified as â€Å"sociology† in the United States. The University of Chicago established the first graduate department of sociology in the United States in 1892 and by 1910, most colleges and universities were offering sociology courses. Thirty years later, most of these schools had established sociology departments. Sociology was first taught in high schools in 1911. Sociology was also growing in Germany and France during this period. However, in Europe, the discipline suffered great setbacks as a result of World Wars I and II. Many sociologists were killed or fled Germany and France between 1933 and the end of World War II. After World War II, sociologists returned to Germany influenced by their studies in America. The result was that American sociologists became the world leaders in theory and research for many years. Sociology has grown into a diverse and dynamic discipline, experiencing a proliferation of specialty areas. The American Sociological Association (ASA) was formed in 1905 with 115 members. By the end of 2004, it had grown to almost 14,000 members and more than 40 â€Å"sections† covering specific areas of interest. Many other countries also have large national sociology organizations. The International Sociological Association (ISA) boasted more than 3,300 members in 2004 from 91 different countries. The ISA sponsored research committees covering more than 50 different areas of interest, covering topics as diverse as children, aging, families, law, emotions, sexuality, religion, mental health, peace and war, and work. Sources About ASA. American Sociological Association, 2019. Statutes of the International Sociological Association. International Sociological Association.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Sustainable and Renewble resources in Ontario Essay

Sustainable and Renewble resources in Ontario - Essay Example The renewable resources that are found in Ontario are natural resources that can be replenished with the passage of time; the latter happening either through biological reproduction or through processes that occur naturally. These resources can be considered a basic part of the natural environment and in fact, they form a large component of its geographical features. It is therefore important to study the renewable resources of Ontario to determine their lifecycle, since a positive lifecycle is normally an indicator of the sustainability of the resource being studied, and the opposite is true. There is a connection between sustainable and renewable resources and the ability of the people using them succeeding. This depends entirely on the quality of these resources and the depth at which they are used in the day-to-day lives of those who are its frequent users. The practices involved in the use of renewable resources are what determine how well these resources are used as well as the means through which these resources can be sustained for use by future generations.... to contribute to the success of the people’s responsible use of renewable resources and, in fact, many businesses have ensured its implementation within their wider plans of the future (Christidis & Law 81). When the responsible use of renewable resources is integrated together with the mainstream business practices, it leads to the extension of the awareness of individuals in the society concerning the importance of these resources. It has been found that any studies concerning renewable resources, being geographical in nature, has to be done over a specific duration of time in order to note the results of the studies being conducted. Various issues usually emerge that may involve the stakeholders and these may require a response in order to protect the renewable resources in question. It is a fact that many businesses in Ontario at times have aims of integrating the sustainability of renewable resources when conducting their activities as well as in their processes and produ cts, but often, these businesses end up facing significant challenges that they fail to adopt there measures. Recent studies on renewable resources have attempted to reinforce a connection between sustainability and innovation. This has involved the selection and maximization of the value of such studies for the long-term prospects that the businesses that function in this environment will have to consider when making their plans concerning the environment. For instance, a business that has a paper-recycling scheme is able to improve a balance sheet in several ways such as savings on costs, enhancing employee commitment, as well as ensuring that the forests within the province are preserved. Technology is one of the most important sources of solution during the implementation of projects whose

Friday, October 18, 2019

Marketing Study of Pirilla PLC Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Marketing Study of Pirilla PLC - Essay Example Typically those engage with international marketing devotes their time on making strategies on how will they penetrate markets or countries provided that they must understand the environment, culture, society, politics, and economics of the country they wish to penetrate. This is important for every aspect of the country they wish to penetrate because somewhat or somehow people are influenced by these factors. These factors may have little, great, or no effect when it comes to purchasing behavior of the people, theory participation when it comes to new products, the society's economy and also consumers in a certain country is greatly influenced by its religion. For example, in India, cow is a sacred animal, if you plan to penetrate the market of India and tried to sell hamburgers in it, people might get mad or somehow your business will soon collapse because no one will buy your hamburgers. In the case of Pirilla PLC, we are pertaining on how we can penetrate other markets if we are to sell snow scooters. In understanding the environment, you cannot sell snow scooters in tropical or warm countries, of course it is useless. Snow scooters are made for countries which experiences winter and countries which all throughout the year is covered with ice. In checking qualifications of the countries which needs snow scooters, European countries qualify for this. Going international is... The main advantage of going international when it comes to marketing is that, there is a possibility for the company to have a bigger profit and sales. Some company often start with this, their neighboring countries are also looking for the same product found only in one country. This gives rise to more demands by other countries, the company of course will provide the demand, and then this becomes the starting point of all the business that will provide demands for other countries. Sooner or later, those firms who provided the product realized that they are making much more profit than just selling their product to just one country only. Another advantage is that you will be able to compete with other producers, and compare your products to the others. This is true when it comes to selling snow scooters to a common market, you will be able to look at competitors and be able to compare other snow scooters from the company's product. A possible disadvantage on going international mayb e is that the company is interfering with local competitors of that country. Another possible disadvantage is that the company destroys culture of the country especially by interfering with the market of the local competitors, this case happens to when McDonald's was introduced to other countries. The regular diet of the people was distracted when McDonald's was introduced. When it comes to the selection of countries for the target market of Pirilla PLC, Luxembourg is a good choice to introduce the snow scooters, especially the deluxe model. Luxembourg as being one of the richest countries in terms of GDP can afford and surely will need the services of a snow scooter. Also climate in Luxembourg is not too cold,


Worksheet 5 - NORA ECCLES HARRISON MUSEUM OF ART - Assignment Example It is a multinational retail company that sales general merchandise and groceries. WALMART is one of the most valuable companies in the world, the leading retail company and the largest public company. WALMART Company being a business organization, there is need for human asset retention in the human resource sector. This is important for labour provision and daily operations of this company. The retention of human asset can be achieved through SWOT analysis of this company. In each and every year, the company spends millions on labour related lawsuits. This is due to criticism on the poor working conditions, low wages and female discrimination. This makes the company lack skilled and experienced personnel. Cases of employee turnover are very rampart and the company spends much on employee training. This is associated to low trained personnel who are poorly paid. WALMART lacks differentiation from its competitors and faces negative publicity from the many cases of bribery and poor working environment. Improvement of the working conditions, increase in the payment and wages and also good employee training will ensure a strategic plan for human asset

Working out Alternatives Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Working out Alternatives - Case Study Example As a safety precaution, the teams are provided with emergency radios when there is need to report cases such as loss or being hurt among the team members. Information such as the starting point of the race is usually given a day before the event (Kumar, Petersen and Robert70). The team members therefore, have to find means to get through and survive as fast as possible. Adventure racing has its roots in a race set in New Zealand, in the year 1980. The wilderness endurance racing was started when one person accidentally overheard a conversation between Americans to create a wilderness challenge. FAR was founded by Dave Ziestma in the year 1998. In a span of three years, FAR’s ‘raid the north’ series served as an introduction to adventure racing to several Canadians. It also became included in the list of the top race series in North America (Lewis 536). FAR’s races were termed as difficult (Holland and Jackie 248). Of the teams sent out, only about 25% would make it to the finishing line intact and in time. The founder of the race, Zietsma, would usually take part in the race. As a result, many got assured that the race would be safe. His involvement in the race as a top competitor also aided in making the name of the company, making it be at the forefront. Frontier Adventure Racing (FAR) is a popular firm in the North Racing series. The organization has been popular among lovers of adventure racing. Adventure racing may take the definition of a race of individuals using vehicles over some terrain. The event is multi-sport, non-stop and with a mixture of teams. It is therefore essential for team members to ensure that they cross the finish line first and in time. The event borrows from kayaking, mountain biking and running. Its popularity grew in New Zealand, Australia and in Europe. Therefore, in the last decades, the event has attracted media attention as well as many players. In retrospect, FAR one of the players of Adventure

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Hedge Funds and Their Role in 2008 Financial Crisis Essay

Hedge Funds and Their Role in 2008 Financial Crisis - Essay Example They are not regulated in the same sense as mutual funds. Mostly, high net worth individuals and some pension funds invest in hedge funds. It is not mandatory for them to be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission because they are not supposed to provide information regarding their operation and valuation in public. The paper tries to explore the early history of hedge funds and how prima facie they are different from mutual funds. The paper also focuses on their role and the impact they created during 2008 financial crisis and also what regulatory measures are currently in force to regulate them. Genesis of Hedge Funds Mallaby emphasizes that Alfred Winslow Jones was the first global hedge-fund manager starting his operations in 1949 without any formal qualification and perhaps he set the tone and style of the functioning of hedge funds that are in vogue today. His way of charging the performance fee was different wherein a straight 20 percent cut was made on net gain s while distributing the profits. This deduction was over and above the management fee and even today most hedge-funds continue to have their performance fee policy in the same line. The fund was called so because all along investments were hedged simultaneously – short-selling some of the weaker stocks to mitigate the systemic risks. He used leveraging as a tool to hedge investments. It is worth noting that Jones’s firm made an astounding return of around 5000% during the year 1949 through 1968. Investopedia states that in 1968, around 140 hedge funds were in operations in the US though most of them were out of business due to slump in subsequent years. The hedge funds saw renaissance in the early 1990s but again, many of them including high-profile hedge funds such as Robertson's were in trouble during dotcom crisis of 2000. Hedge Fund Is Not a Mutual Fund Hedge funds are not mutual funds and they differ in several ways. Mutual funds have a large number of retail inv estors while hedge fund is not interested in a retail exposure and limit itself to a few high-net worth investors. After a minimum lock-in period, investors are free to withdraw the funds in mutual funds but hedge funds usually have a longer lock-out period during which investors cannot withdraw their investments. A mutual fund needs to register with Security Exchange Commission while hedge fund does not have such compulsion. Mutual funds do not undertake speculative activities and focus on returns relative to the bench-mark index. For example, if the bench-mark index goes down by 7 percent but the mutual fund investment goes down by only 4 percent then that will imply that mutual fund has performed better. In contrast, hedge funds focus on absolute returns regardless of the movement of market index. That is why hedge funds employ numerous strategies to earn high returns such as long or short positions on derivative instruments, options and futures. Mutual funds do not resort to suc h strategies to enhance their returns as they are governed by a host of regulatory measures (Investopedia). Role of Hedge Funds in 2008 Financial Crisis Chung argues that hedge funds were not behind the financial crisis of 2008; however, there is no guarantee that they will not cause one in future. Regulatory authorities, fund managers and lawyers believe that banks and financial institutions were largely responsible for the recent financial crisis because they invested heavily in subprime mortgages. The study also revealed that short-selling done by hedge funds did not aggravate the crisis. Hedge funds are not required to be brought under the scanner of policy makers; nevertheless, it is suggested that regulators need to keep a watchful eye on their activities. Accordingly, now hedge-funds firms are needed to register

A comparison of Boeing & Airbus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

A comparison of Boeing & Airbus - Essay Example Here the researcher has discussed the operational management and strategies of two leading aircraft manufacturing companies. Therefore, researcher mainly stressed on five key aspects of operational performance objectives which are quality, speed, dependability, cost and flexibility. The various components of the operational management techniques have been discussed in details with emphasis on indispensable ingredients which can help the buyers. The quality assurance techniques need to be supervised and monitored in such a way so that the end results can be delivered in accordance with the proposed or assured quality. The speed is an important in the airlines industry. So, the researcher draws a comparison between the speeds of two companies. Finally, the flexibility, cost and dependability will discuss to highlight the operational efficiencies. Introduction In present corporate scenario, the international business management plays a crucial role to manage the business network (operat ion management) across the globe. So, most of the companies introduce innovative strategies to enhance the business network and reduce the competition. In this sense, strategic management is an integral part of international business management. ... Strategic management provides sustainability to a business entity in the competitive market. It gives a clear picture to the employees about their job culture and co-relates it with the organizational goals. Operational strategy helps in increasing the productivity of the firm and maximizes the skills of the employees by introducing new work cultures and providing new area of work. Thus, strategic management is beneficial to a firm in various important aspects. This study will throw light on the contribution of strategic operations management as well as the operational performance of two leading airlines company Boeing and Airbus (Owen and Maidment, 2009 p.142). Company overview Boeing Boeing is one of the largest aerospace companies in the World. The corporate office of the Boeing is established in Chicago. The company is specialised for manufacturing commercial jetliners and defence, space and security systems. This is the top exporter which attaches with the 150 countries’ allied governments and airlines companies. The product and service range of the company includes military and commercial aircraft, weapons, satellites, lunch system, defence and electronics system, communication and advanced information systems and performance based training and logistics. The aerospace company is traditionally specialised in innovation and leadership. The primary objective of the company is to meet the emerging customer needs through its continuous expansion of the product line. There are 170000 employees are connected with the business network throughout the world. The operational efficiency of Boeing shows the quality of the employee force. There are two customized business unit i.e. Boeing Commercial Airplanes and Boeing Defence, Space & Security. The company also has

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Hedge Funds and Their Role in 2008 Financial Crisis Essay

Hedge Funds and Their Role in 2008 Financial Crisis - Essay Example They are not regulated in the same sense as mutual funds. Mostly, high net worth individuals and some pension funds invest in hedge funds. It is not mandatory for them to be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission because they are not supposed to provide information regarding their operation and valuation in public. The paper tries to explore the early history of hedge funds and how prima facie they are different from mutual funds. The paper also focuses on their role and the impact they created during 2008 financial crisis and also what regulatory measures are currently in force to regulate them. Genesis of Hedge Funds Mallaby emphasizes that Alfred Winslow Jones was the first global hedge-fund manager starting his operations in 1949 without any formal qualification and perhaps he set the tone and style of the functioning of hedge funds that are in vogue today. His way of charging the performance fee was different wherein a straight 20 percent cut was made on net gain s while distributing the profits. This deduction was over and above the management fee and even today most hedge-funds continue to have their performance fee policy in the same line. The fund was called so because all along investments were hedged simultaneously – short-selling some of the weaker stocks to mitigate the systemic risks. He used leveraging as a tool to hedge investments. It is worth noting that Jones’s firm made an astounding return of around 5000% during the year 1949 through 1968. Investopedia states that in 1968, around 140 hedge funds were in operations in the US though most of them were out of business due to slump in subsequent years. The hedge funds saw renaissance in the early 1990s but again, many of them including high-profile hedge funds such as Robertson's were in trouble during dotcom crisis of 2000. Hedge Fund Is Not a Mutual Fund Hedge funds are not mutual funds and they differ in several ways. Mutual funds have a large number of retail inv estors while hedge fund is not interested in a retail exposure and limit itself to a few high-net worth investors. After a minimum lock-in period, investors are free to withdraw the funds in mutual funds but hedge funds usually have a longer lock-out period during which investors cannot withdraw their investments. A mutual fund needs to register with Security Exchange Commission while hedge fund does not have such compulsion. Mutual funds do not undertake speculative activities and focus on returns relative to the bench-mark index. For example, if the bench-mark index goes down by 7 percent but the mutual fund investment goes down by only 4 percent then that will imply that mutual fund has performed better. In contrast, hedge funds focus on absolute returns regardless of the movement of market index. That is why hedge funds employ numerous strategies to earn high returns such as long or short positions on derivative instruments, options and futures. Mutual funds do not resort to suc h strategies to enhance their returns as they are governed by a host of regulatory measures (Investopedia). Role of Hedge Funds in 2008 Financial Crisis Chung argues that hedge funds were not behind the financial crisis of 2008; however, there is no guarantee that they will not cause one in future. Regulatory authorities, fund managers and lawyers believe that banks and financial institutions were largely responsible for the recent financial crisis because they invested heavily in subprime mortgages. The study also revealed that short-selling done by hedge funds did not aggravate the crisis. Hedge funds are not required to be brought under the scanner of policy makers; nevertheless, it is suggested that regulators need to keep a watchful eye on their activities. Accordingly, now hedge-funds firms are needed to register

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Art History Comparison of Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali and Research Paper

Art History Comparison of Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali and Better Homes, Better Gardens by Kerry James Marshall - Research Paper Example For many artists, the inspiration for their works stems from the things that they know or have experience with.   Salvador Dali included the cliffs of his beloved Catalan Coast in many of his paintings, including his most notorious â€Å"Persistence of Memory†, not only because they were a landscape feature he was intimately familiar with, but also because they helped to represent the duality of meaning he wished to convey in his artwork.   In a similar way, the African-American artist Kerry James Marshall has worked to include his own experience and background into his paintings in such a way that they work to provide a meaningful background to his subjects, adding subtleties of meaning to the overall work that helps to portray his idea of what the painting is attempting to say.  In both works of art, the background plays a large role in establishing the meaning of the work. Although the Catalan cliffs might not have the same impact on an uninformed viewer than they wou ld have on someone who is intimately familiar with the changing faces of these cliffs as the sunlight plays across their face, they nevertheless add a nuance of meaning to â€Å"Persistence of Memory† that might otherwise be lost, especially for individuals who have seen them first-hand or know anything about the background of the artist. For Dali, the cliffs of the background represented the physical equivalent of his â€Å"principle of paranoiac metamorphosis.† Dali is quoted as saying â€Å"All the images capable of being suggested by the complexity of their innumerable irregularities appear successively and by turn as you change your position. This was so objectifiable that the fishermen of the region had since time immemorial baptized each of these imposing conglomerations – the camel, the eagle, the anvil, the monk, the dead woman, the lion’s head. [†¦] I discovered in this perpetual disguise the profound meaning of that modesty of nature whic h Heraclitus referred to in his enigmatic phrase ‘Nature likes to conceal herself.’† (Descharnes & Neret 1994 p. 171).

Monday, October 14, 2019

Humanistic Theory According To Abraham Maslow Education Essay

Humanistic Theory According To Abraham Maslow Education Essay This is the psychological perspective popularized by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow that emphasizes the human capacity for choice and growth. The overriding assumption is that humans have free will and are not simply fated to behave in specific ways or are zombies blindly reacting to their environment. The humanists stated that the subject matter or psychology is the human subjective experience of the world how human experience things, why they experience things, etc. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Humanistic psychologists believe that an individuals behavior is connected to his inner feelings and self-image. Unlike the behaviorists, humanistic psychologists believe that humans are not solely the product of their environment. Rather humanistic psychologists study human meanings, understandings, and experiences involved in growing, teaching and learning. They emphasize characteristics that are shared by all human beings such as love, grief, caring and self worth. Humanistic psychologists study how people are influenced by their self-perceptions and the person meanings attached to their experiences. Humanistic psychologists are not primarily concerned with instinctual drives, responses to external stimuli, or past experiences. Rather, they consider conscious choices, responses to internal needs, and current circumstances to be important in shaping human behavior. Humanistic theory is based upon the idea that everyone has the potential to make a contribution to society and be a good and likeable person if their needs are fulfilled. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers led the humanistic theory movement and it was Maslow who developed the pyramid of needs. Maslow believed that fulfilling the needs in the correct order would allow individuals to become self actualised, fully able persons. So only after the basic physiological needs such as food, shelter, warmth are met can individuals move on to the next stages; the need to feel secure, to be loved and accepted etc. Maslow developed his theory not by studying mentally ill patients, which is where much psychological knowledge had derived from up to that point, but by studying healthy, productive, creative individuals lives and careers. He concluded that there were common characteristics which were shared by successful individuals including self acceptance, openness and respect for other individuals. Carl Rogers felt that, in addition to Maslows hierarchical needs, in order for a person to develop fully that they needed to be in an environment which would provide them with genuineness, acceptance and empathy and that without such a nourishing environment healthy personalities and relationships would be unable to flourish. Humanistic theory is basically about the development of the individual. It was very popular in the 1970s but seems to be slightly out of favour today as Western nations have generally moved slightly towards the political right and there is more emphasis on conforming and contributing to, a slightly more conservative society. Of course, whilst humanistic theory does have a very strong focus on the individual, it is based upon the belief that well developed, successful individuals are best placed to make a positive contribution to society. Humanistic theory suggests that the achievement of happiness is frequently dependent upon achieving, or giving yourself the licence to, investigate and pursue your own deepest interests and desires. Humanistic Theory according to Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow has been considered the Father of Humanistic Psychology. Maslows theory is based on the notion that experience is the primary phenomenon in the study of human learning and behavior. He placed emphasis on choice, creativity, values, self-realization, all distinctively human qualities, and believed that meaningfulness and subjectivity were more important than objectivity. For Maslow, development of human potential, dignity and worth are ultimate concerns. Maslow rejected behaviorist views and Freuds theories on the basis of their reductionistic approaches. He felt Freuds view of human nature was negative, and he valued goodness, nobility and reason. Also, Freud concentrated on the mentally ill, and Maslow was interested in healthy human psychology. Maslow and his colleagues came to refer to their movement as third force psychology, the first two being psychoanalysis and behaviorism. The third force is based on philosophies of existentialism and humanism. He is famous for proposing that human motivation is based on a hierarchy of needs. The lowest level of needs are physiological and survival needs such as hunger and thirst. Further levels include belonging and love, self-esteem, and self-actualization. From Maslows perspective, the drive to learn is intrinsic. The purpose of learning is to bring about self-actualization, and the goals of educators should include this process. Learning contributes to psychological health. Maslow proposed other goals of learning, including discovery of ones vocation or destiny; knowledge of values; realization of life as precious, acquisition of peak experiences, sense of accomplishment, satisfaction of psychological needs, awareness of beauty and wonder in life, impulse control, developing choice, and grappling with the critical existential problems of life. Maslows theory of learning highlighted the differences between experiential knowledge and spectator knowledge. He regarded spectator, or scientific, knowledge to be inferior to experiential. Properties of experiential learning include: immersion in the experience without awareness of the flow of time momentarily not being self-conscious transcending time, place, history, and society by being beyond and unaffected by them merging with that which is being experienced being innocently receptive, as a child, uncritical suspending temporarily evaluation of the experience in terms of its importance or unimportance lack of inhibition, subsiding of selfishness, fear, defensiveness experience unfolds naturally without striving or effort suspending criticism, validation, and evaluation of the experience trusting experience by passively letting it happen; letting go of preconceived notions disengaging from logical, analytical, and rational activities Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Needs They consist of needs for oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body temperature. They are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the persons search for satisfaction. We need these for basic survival. Maslows theory said that you need to satisfy first the basic needs like Physiological needs and Safety needs, to get motivation to truly attain the higher-level needs like social needs and esteem. Safety Needs When all physiological needs are satisfied and no longer dominating our thoughts and behaviors, we progress to safety needs. A persons attention turns to safety and security for himself/ herself to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by: Living in a safe area Medical insurance Job security Financial reserves These include the need for security. We often have little awareness of these, except in times of emergency disorganization in social structure (war time, terrorist acts, domestic violence, natural disasters). Maslows hierarchy said that, if a person feels that he or she is in harms way, higher needs would not be attained that quickly. Belongingness Love needs When a person has attained the lower level like Physiological and Safety needs, higher level needs become important, the first of which are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with other people like: Need for friends Need for belonging Need to give and receive love When safety and physiological needs are met, we desire, to be loved by others and to belong. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness alienation. This involves both giving receiving love, affection the sense of belonging (family, friends, social groups). Esteem Needs After the first 3 classes of needs are met, the needs for esteem can become dominant. These involve needs for both self-esteem for the esteem a person gets from others. Esteem needs may be classified as internal or external. Self respect and achievement are some examples of Internal esteem needs. Social status and recognition are some examples of External esteem needs. Some esteem needs are: Self-respect Achievement Attention Recognition Reputation Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, respect from others. When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident valuable as a person in the world. When these needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless worthless. Need for Self-Actualization When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then only then are the needs for self-actualization activated. The last necessity is the Self Actualization or Fulfillment Needs. This includes purposed, personal growth, and the full realization of ones potentials. This is the point where people start becoming fully functional, acting purely on their own volition, and having a healthy personality. Maslow describes self-actualization as a persons need to be do that which the person was born to do. A musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet must write. These needs make themselves felt in signs of restlessness (person feels edgy, tense, lacking something, restless.) The person must be true to his or her own nature, be what you are meant to be. Maslow believed that very few people reach the state of self-actualization. Although we all have the need to move toward the goal of reaching our full potential, other needs may get in the way. Misconceptions about Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Maslow himself agreed that his 5-level need hierarchy oversimplifies the relationship between needs behavior. The order of needs makes sense for most of us, though there may be some notable exceptions (e.g., some people need to satisfy their needs for self-esteem respect before they can enter a love relationship). We may so desire fulfilling a need that we sacrifice others below it. For example, a person with a passion for acting might sacrifice his or her hunger, which is one of physiological needs, to pursue a career in acting even though the payment is barely enough and struggling to live while trying to make a name for themselves in the business. Maslow was interested in studying people who are psychologically healthy. These were people who had become self-actualized. He interviewed these people to see how they were able to satisfy all of the needs on the hierarchy. He conducted what he called a holistic analysis in which he sought general impressions from his efforts to understand these people in depth. What are Self-Actualized People Like? They tend to accept themselves for what they are. They freely admit their weaknesses, but do make attempts to improve. They dont worry excessively over the mistakes they have made, but instead focus on improving. They respect feel good about themselves. However, this self love is healthy not narcissistic. They are less restricted by cultural norms than the average person. They feel free to express their desires, even if contrary to the popular view. These people have frequent peak experiences, in which time place are transcended, anxieties are lost, a unity of self with the universe is obtained (birth of a child, marriage, deciding to go to school). Humanistic Theory according to Carl Rogers Carl Rogers was a central figure in the humanistic movement of personality psychology. He lived from 1902 till 1987. In the span of his life, he was an instrumental figure in the understanding of the individual as a central point of the study of human potential. He believed that within each individual lies an innate desire and motivation to learn in order to progress to a higher level of achievement and self-development. Both Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers work became popularly known in the mid-1980s as the human potential movement. This categorization of their work became the ground where psychologists used their conceptual framework to study the impact on ones personality as well as in the field of education, among others. One of his famous quotes epitomized his conceptual framework, The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn and change. This quotation reflected his theoretical conception that people must be able to create a learning curve that will enable them to change towards a new chapter in their self-development. According to Rogers (1951), people can be tuned to learn to unlock themselves from an environment that constricts their potential because of preconceived notions of how they should be. Rogers believed that people who are restricted by their perception of the environment in which they exist in have a debilitating effect on how they may view their potential. However, if an individual is able to overcome the faulty perception(s) of the environment, and learn to acknowledge the potential to grow, then the individual may initiate steps as well as processes towards this end. Rogers strongly advocated that a growing individual is on where he or she is aware of a progress of ongoing internal change, and an acceptance of oneself. Rogers further emphasized that individuals will inevitably experience positive development if they are exposed to supportive environmental condition. By his understanding of supportive environmental condition, Rogers believed that social factors contribute to positive development. Rogers (1982), quoted by Pfaffenberger. A, 2007, p 508, emphatically stated that in his opinion, all humans will display compassion and cooperation if they are provided with the appropriate environmental supports. Therefore, Rogers was of the view that learning in a supportive environmental condition was crucial to the development of oneself. In a much later publication, Rogers (1982) also placed emphasis on growth-enhancing relationships that facilitate inner awareness and congruence which allowed motivation of effort towards a certain objective. Rogers postulated that relationships that provide for an awareness of oneself in differing situations can lead to personal growth. For example, if a child learns that he or she is nurtured in a caring family and with acceptance (relationship factor), he or she is more adapted to see situational variables (such as studies, or skill based acquisition) as motivation towards achieving objectives. However, it is notable that this presumption of Rogers may be faulty because it is argued that situational variables can also work to the detriment of the individual. In contrast, Abraham Maslow (1968) explicitly acknowledged that difficult circumstances can also be growth-enhancing. Much research had been conducted to investigate how growth-enhancing relationships and situational variables may trigger different affect. One of the more definitive studies was conducted by L. King (2001), (quoted by Pfaffenberger. A, 2007, p 510). In this study, King investigated the influence of challenging and limiting life events on personality development as measured by Loevingers (1976) SCT Sentence Completion Test. The study concluded that cognitive abilities and personality structures interact with life circumstances, and that the nature of this interaction is relevant to whether growth occurs (p, 511). This study also supports Rollo Mays (1958) theory of existential therapy, where clients are taught to constructively work with their limitations and to create freedom so that they can choose values, meanings, and their levels of commitment. Theoretical orientations of Rogers humanistic concept: The humanistic orientation of Rogers theory can be essentially encapsulated using two (2) theories. The two (2) theories are the person-centred personality theory and the self-determination theory. Person-centred theory For almost fifty (50) years since his earlier publication of A Theory of Therapy, Personality and Interpersonal Relationships, developed under the Client-centred Framework, Rogers (1959), the person-centred movement and client-centred approach towards counselling and psycho-therapy are also generalized to other fields of knowledge. The crux of the person-centred personality theory is the assumption that human beings have an inherent tendency towards growth, development, and optimal functioning. According to Rogers (1959), quoted by Patterson and Joseph, 2007, p 120, the person-centred approach offers a dynamic, process-focused account of personality development and functioning,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ What this means is that, every human is born with an innate motivational drive, known as the actualizing tendency. Actualizing tendency is defined by Rogers (1959) as, the inherent tendency of the organism to develop all of its capacities in ways which serve to maintain or enhance the organismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦development towards autonomy and away from heteronomy, or control by external forces. (p 196) (Quoted by Patterson and Joseph, 2007, p 120) Every individual possesses some capacity that allows him or her to realize the inherent potential within. One of the key implications of Rogers actualizing tendency lies in how individuals undertake to bring out the potential. According to Rogers, the impact of the environmental conditions is a determining factor. Under favourable social-environmental conditions, Rogers proposed that the individuals self-concept actualizes in accordance with his or her organismic valuing process (OVP). The OVP refers to the evaluation of experiences in a manner consistent with ones intrinsic needs: Rogers summed it by declaring that, the human infant is seen as having an inherent motivational system and a regulatory system (the valuing process) which by its feedback keeps the organism on the beam of satisfying his motivational needs. (Rogers, 1959, p 222). Even from young, every individual is keen to fulfil some of his or her intrinsic needs; those that are not dependent on externalities or due to any prior learning. An example is how children recognize the importance of exploration whilst learning and/or playing. In the process, children discover more about themselves, about the environment, about others and about life in general. As children learn to correlate these experiences into their organization of self-concept, they begin to instil a sense of their OVP learning to evaluate the experiences based on their intrinsic needs. The concept of OVP is important to the central theme of Rogers theoretical framework. Important to Rogers understanding is his (1957) terminology of a fully functioning person an ideal of autonomous psychological functioning that occurs when self-actualization is organismically congruent. This concept is similar to Maslow (1970) and presupposes that individuals must firstly satisfy their most fundamental needs. In his later works, Rogers (1963 and 1964) proposed that the attitudes and behaviours of more fully functioning individuals are consistent with certain internally generated value directions. The value directions include moving toward increasingly socialized goals, where sensitivity to others and acceptance of others is positively valued and where deep relationships are positively valued, and moving in the direction of greater openness to experience, where the person comes to value an openness to all of his or her inner and outer experience ( Rogers, 1964, p 166). Rogers acknowledged that conditions or the social-environmental factors are not always ideal for the emergence of a fully functioning person. Situations like this give rise to a state of incongruence. There is a state of tension and internal confusion. When an unfavourable social environment is present, the actualizing tendency is thwarted, Rogers (1959). The actualizing tendency is compromised by the conditions of worth. Conditions of worth are conceptualized as the values that are introjected by the individual from his or her social interactions and that stem from the developing infants need for positive regard from significant others in his or her social environment. In this respect, if an infant receives positive regard that is conditional, then he or she learns to evaluate experiences according to whether or not they satisfy the externally imposed conditions. As the child develops, the conditions of worth are introjected, meaning that they act as an internalized social order and replacing organismic valuing as the principle governing the individuals attitudes and behaviour. Self-Determination Theory This is a contemporary organismic theory formulated by Deci, E.L and Ryan, R. M, (1985, 1991, 2000) that focused on motivation and personality functioning that emphasizes the central rule of the individuals inner resources for personality development and behavioural self-regulation. This theory is similar to the person-centred theory in that self-determination theory views the individual as an active growth-oriented organism, attempting to actualize his or her potentialities within the environment in which he or she functions. A summary of the self-determination theory carries the following elements: Human beings are inherently proactive; have potential to act on and master both the inner forces and the external, Human beings, as self-organizing systems, have an inherent tendency toward growth, development, and integrated functioning, For people to actualize their inherent nature and potentials, people require nutrients from the social environment. Adapted from Deci and Vansteenkiste, 2004, pp 23-24, (quoted by Patterson and Joseph, 2007, p 124) In self-determination theory, one of the major sources of motivation and/or OVP is the recognition whether the behaviour is intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. Intrinsic motivation/regulation is equivalent to acting in accordance with OVP. At the same time, there are three (3) subcategories of extrinsic motivation that may account for extrinsic regulations. Perceived locus of causality/ Locus of evaluation describe the individuals perception as to whether the motivation is located internally or externally = person-centred construct of locus of evaluation (Rogers, 1959), Basic needs/ Necessary and Sufficient conditions need for competence, relatedness, and autonomy; essential for facilitating psychological growth and integration, social development, and personal well-being. Competence refers to our need to control outcomes, and to be efficacious in our environment, autonomy refers to the individuals attempts to be a self-determining agent of his or her own attitudes and behaviour, while relatedness describes the urge to be in relationship with others, caring for others, and being cared for by others. Self-determination theory hypothesized that, for the individual to experience an ongoing sense of integrity and well-being, each of these three basic needs must be met throughout the life-span. This hypothesis supports the contention that certain, social-environmental conditions nurture self-regulation based on organismic valuing and lead to a process of growth and change in the direction of healthy functioning and psychological well-being. Contingent Self-Esteem/Conditional Self-Regard refers to the influence of people viewed as significant others (Deci Ryan, 1995; Ryan Brown, 2003). This is similar to the person-centred view of conditional self-regard. There exists a great amount of similarities between the person-centred and the self-determination theory. Both theories postulate that the path to psychological well-being involves following an innate guidance mechanism. This understanding is important to the field of learning because each individual has a different subset of characteristics that may promote and/or hinder learning. In this respect, knowing what triggers effective learning, providing conducive environment, taking into account an individuals OVP, social factors, as well as structuring the curriculum are necessary to enhance the optimal level of learning. Humanistic theory proposed understanding humans as a state of being, a dynamic and ever-changing situation where each individual is seen as always striving to fulfil the potential within. APPLICATION IN EDUCATION In the field of education, humanistic theory grants educators important conceptual understanding about the role of learners. From Maslow and Rogers, educators have a better insight into the elements of learners style and dimensions of absorption of knowledge and utilization of skills and abilities. In his paper, Humanistic Self-Instruction, the author, R. Craig Hogan (1978) suggested that instructors/educators should demonstrate their appreciation and value of the individual learners by viewing them as objects that have unique and specific needs. The negative implications of treating the learners as empty jars or blank slates is that many instructors/educators feel that learners are passive receivers only; filling the learners as the instructors/educators wish. This negative implications are serious to warrant attention as instructors/educators may force learners to be receptive and have no obligation whatsoever to consider his or her individuality and autonomy in learning. According to Chris Argyris, in his book, Intervention Theory and Method: A Behavioural Science View, 1970, pp 15-16, we see them (learners) and they see themselves as autonomous, responsible individuals committed to the direction the intervention is taking, making free choices based on sufficient valid information about the means and ends. It is a common error that most instructors/educators as well as educational institutions assume that learners need to be instructed as to their learning. This assumption works on the premise that effective learning must follow certain syllabus, instructional method(s) and assessment grading. The education system in most countries is mostly rigid; built along the tried and tested formula of the existing structure of instructed teaching. In cases such as these, the classroom may contain students of varying levels of interest, self-management skill, independence versus dependent minded, industrious versus sluggard and bright as well as lesser bright ones. The methodology of teaching would be uniform across all All are fed the same the same fare at the same rate in the same way. The classroom atmosphere suppresses individuality, autonomy, and freedom by stifling students initiative to manage their own learning at every level of responsibility. Self-directed learning is minimized (Hogan, 1978, pp 262-263) Combination of group contingencies and cooperative learning in adopting humanistic principles The conceptual understanding of group contingencies is that it is primarily derived from behavioural learning theory (Bandura, 1969). The theory behind group contingencies is that a group is rewarded if it collectively meets some standard; and the members of the group apply social sanctions to one another to encourage group members to do what is necessary to ensure that the group will be successful (Slavin 1987). Group contingencies are also workable if the reward/sanction is used in tangent to the efforts of individual member of the group. This creates a situation where each individual makes him or herself liable and responsible for the success of the group. In this, the humanist tendencies are activated in each of the individual. Cooperative learning refers to a set of instructional methods in which students are encouraged or required to work together on academic tasks. Cooperative learning methods may be as simple as having students sit together to discuss or help one another with classroom tasks. Rewards may be offered; as in group contingencies but are not essential (Slavin, 1987, p 31). An aspect of cooperative learning that is vital is the element of peer interaction. The quality of the peer interaction determines the extent of the learning and the success of the completion of tasks. The effectiveness of cooperative learning is best seen in two (2) studies (Hulten DeVries, 1976; Slavin, 1980) which found that providing recognition to student teams based on the sum of their individual learning increased student achievement even if students were not permitted to interact in class. In the same vein, a German study, (Huber, Bogatzki, Winter, 1982) found that providing students an opportunity to study together did not increase their achievement, but adding group rewards based on individual learning did lead to enhanced achievement. (Slavin, 1987, p 33) Therefore, the researches listed above clearly supports the position that cooperative reward structures, or group contingencies, based on individual learning of group members are necessary for the success of these methods in improving student achievement. Peer interaction is also found to be important to the success of cooperative strategies. [Webb, (1985), Peterson Janicki, (1979)] Students are motivated to engage in elaborated, cognitively involving explanations and discussions if the learning of their group mates is made important by the provision of group rewards based on individual learning performances (Slavin, 1983). One of the important findings of Slavins study has found positive effects of cooperative learning non race relations, attitudes, self-esteem and other non-academic outcomes (1983). Humanistic understanding of education is not specifically confined to the individual per se but rather emphasizes on how learners/students are able to gain the right concept of themselves and pursue towards growth. In this, cooperative learning has a major role if the outcomes point to similar outcomes. Humanistic theory and learning in Adult Education Humanistic application is most seen in adult learning. For most adults, the adage of more is caught than taught is true. According to a paper presentation by Jackson, Sanetta. George, Cooks, Alyce; Hackney, Darwyn; Stevens, Claude; and Zumwait, Dave, (2002), this adage refers to the informal and incidental learning that takes place on a daily basis and in most situations. In these situations, the learning revolves around human relationships. It is common knowledge that the psychological learning environment of adults and non-adults are significantly different. By virtue of adults ability to make decisions regarding their personal growth and development; especially in learning, humanistic theory provides for a deeper insight into understanding the psychological learning environment of adults. The psychological learning environment is defined as creating a climate in which both learners and teachers are able to engage in genuine exchange. (Jackson, For teachers, this means that learners need to feel a sense of welcome and at ease, attending to the fears and doubts that adult