Friday, May 31, 2019

The Emancipation Proclamation And Its Consequences :: American America History

The Emancipation Proclamation And Its ConsequencesDuring his election campaign and throughout the early age of the Civil War, Lincoln vehemently denied the rumour that he would mount an attack on slavery. At the outbreak of fighting, he pledged to restore the Union, but accept slavery where it existed, with Congress supporting his position via the Crittendon-Johnson Resolutions. However, during 1862 Lincoln was persuaded for a number of reasons that Negro emancipation as a contend measure was both(prenominal) essential and sound. humans opinion seemed to be going that way, Negro slaves were helping the Southern war effort, and a string of defeats had left Northern examplee low. A new moral boost to the cause might give weary Union soldiers added impetus in the fight. Furthermore, if the Union fought against slavery, Britain and France could not help the other side, since their peculiar institution was largely abhorred in both European nations. Having eased the American public i nto the idea, through speeches that hinted at emancipation, Lincoln finally signed the Proclamation on January 1st 1863, releasing all slaves lav rebel lines. Critics argued that the proclamation went little further than the Second Confiscation Act and it conveniently failed to release prisoners behind Union lines. Nevertheless, Henry Adams summed up public reaction to the Proclamation as an almost convulsive reaction in our favour. During 1862, the abolition movement enjoyed previously unparalleled levels of support and respectability. Wendell Phillips gave rousing speeches in towns where only a family previously, he would have feared for his life. Senator John Sherman wrote to his brother, the general You can form no conception of the change of opinion here as to the Nero question. I am brisk for one to meet the broad issue of emancipation. A New-England, and therefore radical-dominated Congress received a flood of anti-slavery bills, which they eagerly turned into law. Howeve r, feelings of front-line troops were somewhat different, with frightening reports of violence against Negroes, and a general reluctance to further the cause of emancipation. Most soldiers shared the view of a New York private, who wrote we must first conquer, and then it is measure enough to talk about the damd niggers. Even those regiments who welcomed black contrabands set them to menial work such as cooking and washing clothes. The circumstances generated by the war forced generals to make decisions about what to do with escaped slaves who sought refuge in their lines.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Developing an Appropriate Response to Child Abuse Essay -- Child Abuse

Child abuse is one of the fastest growing social problems in the United States. A social problem is, a check up on that a significant number of people believe to be a problem. A condition in which there is a sizable difference between the ideals of a society and its actual achievements (Coleman et al. 20062). However, society has changed the stylus it views the issue, and is working towards finding a effect to this awful problem. Child abuse encompasses four main areas physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect. Child abuse is considered a sociological phenomenon because it is a learned behavior. erudition the social patterns as to why people abuse will give a better understanding to its reasons, and also the development of society in the way that it views children. 3.6 million children were victims of abuse in the year 2006. Sixty four percent were victims of neglect, sixteen percent suffered from physical abuse, and eight percent were sexually abused. A lso in 2006, 1,530 children died as a result of abuse an average of four children everyday (Child Welfare Information Gateway 2008). A study was done by David G. Gil, agent of Violence Against Children Physical Child Abuse in the United States and Journal of Marriage and Family, conducted a study about the types of child that was abused. His findings indicated that children of all ages are abused. He also found that abused children are more likely to come from single-parent homes or from large families. Income, occupation, and education are all factors that indicate the higher rank of abuse. Most children in his sample were abused by their mothers, and fewer than half the abused children in his sample were living with their biological father... ...lcohol abuse problems, children are lots the most vulnerable. Briere (1992) talks about societys responsibility to take care of its future, and using the feminist, functionalist, and conflict theory perspectives, it is our respon sibility to change the way in which children are taken care of. The treatment of childhood maltreatment effects is still in its infancy, however. It is likely that the next decade will bring with it a burgeoning of treatment techniques and approaches relevant to child abuse. As this field develops, so too grows the opportunity for clinicians to provide increasingly more effective services to abuse survivors. To the finis that child abuse trauma underlies a significant proportion of modern mental wellness problems, these developments are likely to have substantial implications for mental health practice in the years to come. (P.163)

Standardized Tests Are Ineffective Essay -- High-Stakes Standardized Te

Standardized tests ar unnecessary because they are excruciating to the minds of many innocent students. to each one year, the tests get tougher and stricter until the students cannot process their own thoughts. The tests become torturous to the minds of those only starting in the world of tests. The students already battling in the war are continuing to come back deeper and deeper into the world of uncreativity and narrowness. As the walls narrow in on them, they are lost and unable to become innovative thinkers. Moreover, the implementation of standardized tests into the public school systems of the get together States of America has controversially raised two different views the proponents versus the opponents in the battle of the effectiveness of standardized tests. Standardized tests require all test takers to answer the similar questions the tests are also scored in a standard manner. Thus, the education system believes that it is fair for everybody to take the same test b ecause it is preparing students for college learning. In reality, intelligence cannot solely be determined by a test score therefore, standardized tests are ineffective in encouraging learning in educational environments for three reasons they are stressful, discriminatory, and uncreative. Throughout the history of standardized testing in the United States of America, citizens have viewed the test as an effective tool to build a society on excellence and success. Furthermore, standardized tests have developed and spread in various public schools as an unproblematic way to test a large hail of students quickly. Educators use test scores to evaluate student performance, teacher proficiency, and school effectiveness. However, standardized tests are not the best way to te... ...ningful projects that can be utilise in real life. Works CitedFletcher, Dan. Standardized Testing. Times. Times, 11 Dec. 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Popham, James. Why Standardized Tests Dont Measure Educational Quality. Journal of Educational leaders 56.6 (1999) 8-15. Web. 29 Nov. 2013.Rooks, Noliwe M. Why Its Time to Get Rid Of Standardized Tests. Times. Times, 11 Oct. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Sarason, Irwin G. Stress, Anxiety, and Cognitive Interference Reactions to Tests. Journal of Personality and Social psychology 46.4 (1984) 929-38. PsycARTICLES. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Schmidt, Peter. Sunday Dialogue Too Tethered to Tests? New York Times. New York Times, 12 Oct. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Strauss, Valerie. Have Standardized Tests Really Helped Kids Learn More? cap Post. Washington Post, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The Examination of the Residential School System in Canada Essay

Education is an essential aspect in our ever-changing societies. It is used as a means of transmitting concepts, knowledge, and values, often to younger generations (Ravelli & Webber, 2010). Education and schooling differ in both societies, varying based on the methods of teaching of different heathenish groups. For instance, Canadian Aboriginal people were taught based on the needs of their individual families and class. This greatly differed from the European remains of education, which stressed adequate involvement with all of society. though the Aboriginal manner of education was efficient and effective, the Europeans wanted to bring a change to their previous practices. As seen in the film, Education As We See It, European missionaries established a form of formal education for Aboriginal children, which was to be governed at residential schools. However, this tradition did not last long due to salary increase conflicts. European missionaries believed Aboriginal children wer e in need of assistance to become more civilized, and wanted them to be integrated into their European culture (Ravelli & Webber, 2010). Once sent to residential schools, the children were prevented from seeing and speaking to their families, aside from very short periods during the year. They were also subject to harsh treatment, and on some occasions, physical and sexual abuse. Residential schools were later deemed immoral, and unethical, and ar completely non-existent today. Nonetheless, sociologists still study the effects and methods used by residential schools, often through common divinatory perspectives and basic sociological concepts.One theoretical perspective that can be associated with residential schools is the conflict theory. In the eyes of confli... ...d.Through an understanding of theoretical perspectives, and basic sociological concepts, the residential school system can be understood. The conflict theory correctly describes the residential education system, and it presents an accurate understanding of the destruction of Aboriginal culture. Socialization, culture, social inequality, and modern social theories all further explain the residential school system, and the effects it has on both the Europeans and the Aboriginals. Recognized now as a mistake, the use and removal of residential schools testament forever be noted as a changing point in the struggle faced by the Aboriginal people of Canada.ReferencesRavelli, B., & Webber, M. (2010). Exploring Sociology A Canadian Perspective. Toronto Pearson.Geraldine, B. (Director). (1993). Education As We See It Documentary. National Film Board of Canada.

Free Essay - Setting in William Faulkners A Rose for Emily :: A Rose for Emily, William Faulkner

Importance of Setting in William Faulkners A Rose for Emily Setting is place and time, and often provides more than a mere backdrop for the action of a story. William Faulkner uses this device in his complex short story A Rose for Emily to give insight into the lonely valet de chambre of Miss Emily Grierson. Faulkner portrays the t protestspeople and Emily in the southern town of Jefferson during the late 1800s to early 1900s. The town is more than just the setting in the story it takes on its own characterization alongside Emily the main character. It is the main reasoning behind Emilys attitude and actions. It gives the reader an easier understanding into why Emily makes the decisions she does as the story unwinds. The town of Jefferson was deeply indirectly involved in the lifetime of Emily Grierson. They watched and debated her every move, being her analyst, they wondering why she did certain things. They had their own idea of who she was and what they wanted her to be. The re ason being was that the aristocratic Grierson family that her beat headed was very highly recognized in the past era of the Confederacy. Her father had much agency and was close to a very popular mayor named Colonel Sartoris. The power Emilys father has over Emily can be seen in a portrait of the two that the narrator describes Emily a slender woman in white in the background, her father a spraddled silhouette in the foreground, his back to her and clutching a horsewhip. (141) He does in fact control her like a horse, never allowing her to date anyone. And until his cobblers last she indeed does non. After Emilys father dies, we find her becoming involved with a gay man named Homer Baron who she probably believes she will eventually marry. It is her incessant relying on a male figure that gets Emily into this situation. It is the setting in which she lye that has this impact on her thought and understanding. We eventually find out in the end that Emily kills Homer. She does thi s not do this out anger or hatred toward this man. It is the belief on her part, that a man has to play a significant role in her life that drives Emily to do this unbelievable act of violence. In her mind this was not a crazy thing to do.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Lynchings In America Essay -- essays research papers

Recently, an L.A. Times article (dated 2/13/00) reviewed a new book entitled "Without Sanctuary", a array of photographs from lynchings throughout America. During the course of the article, the author, Benjamin Schwarz, outlined some very interesting and disturbing facts related to this gruesome act of violence Between 1882 and 1930, more than 3,000 mint were lynched in the U.S., with approximately 80% of them taking place in the South. Though most plurality think only African Americans were victims of lynchings, during those years, about 25% were white. info indicates that mobs in the West lynched 447 whites and 38 shockings in the Midwest there were 181 white victims and 79 black and in the South, people lynched 291 whites and 2,462 African Americans. Though most people believe lynchings were just the manifestation of racial hatred, the author indicates that 20% of Southern lynching victims were killed by mobs of their own race. In addition, other societies such as a ntediluvian Rome and Greece, Germany, China, Nigeria, and East Africa lynched their own. It is for this reason that Mr. Schwarz believes lynchings cannot be explained only in terms of racism and paranoid "white psyche". To find the true reason, we must opine a different point of view. According to Mr. Schwarz, in the late 19th century, there arose in the South a large proportion of transient black men who, as their labor became expendable in an increasingly industrial and commercial econo...

Lynchings In America Essay -- essays research papers

Recently, an L.A. Times article (dated 2/13/00) reviewed a new book empower "Without Sanctuary", a collection of photographs from lynchings throughout America. During the course of the article, the author, Benjamin Schwarz, outlined some very interesting and disturbing facts related to this gruesome act of personnel Between 1882 and 1930, more than 3,000 people were lynched in the U.S., with approximately 80% of them taking place in the South. Though most people think only African Americans were victims of lynchings, during those years, about 25% were white. Data indicates that mobs in the West lynched 447 whites and 38 blacks in the Midwest there were 181 white victims and 79 black and in the South, people lynched 291 whites and 2,462 African Americans. Though most people believe lynchings were just the manifestation of racial hatred, the author indicates that 20% of Southern lynching victims were killed by mobs of their own race. In addition, some other societies such a s Ancient Rome and Greece, Germany, China, Nigeria, and East Africa lynched their own. It is for this reason that Mr. Schwarz believes lynchings cannot be explained only in terms of racism and paranoid "white psyche". To flummox the true reason, we must consider a different point of view. According to Mr. Schwarz, in the late 19th century, there arose in the South a double proportion of transient black men who, as their labor became expendable in an increasingly industrial and commercial econo...

Monday, May 27, 2019

Case Study – Ben and Jerry

The state of Vermont has been no stranger to paving the path for social justice in America. It is the first state to introduce gracious unions and now holds the backing as the first state to legalize same-sex wedding ceremony by enacting it through a bill rather than in response to a required lawcourt decision. (Wikipedia) In April of 2009, Vermont became the fourth state to legalize gay and lesbian marriage. With the bill set to take effect on September 1, 2009, Ben & Jerrys created a foot race to harmonize with the bills introduction in its ingleside state. (PRSA)Ben & Jerrys is a premium, American ice unction company created by lifelong friends Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield. It was founded in Burlington, Vermont in 1978 where it is currently headquartered today. Cohen, a college dropout, and Greenfield, a recent college grad, decided to open an ice cream shop because they felt they needed to do something with themselves. After splitting the cost of a correspondence racet rack on ice cream-making from Penn State University, they leased an old gas station building and opened the first Ben & Jerrys lift out Shop.The rest is history. Since opening its first Scoop Shop in 1978, Ben & Jerrys has expanded into a widely successful brand and leader in ice cream, frozen yogurt and sorbet manufacturing. Their ice cream can be found in all corners of the world, 26 different countries to be exact. Its products are distributed in grocery stores, restaurants, franchise Ben & Jerrys Scoop Shops and other venues worldwide. as well as achieving great economical success, the company makes significant product donations to community groups and nonprofits across the nation.The purpose of Ben & Jerrys philanthropy is to support the founding values of the company, economic and social justice, environmental restoration and peace through understanding. (Ben & Jerry) In 1990, eight million Ben & Jerry ice cream cartons carried a Support Farm Aid message as get around of a grassroots effort to support family farmers. In 1991, the company introduced a bus that used solar panels to power onboard electronics in support of solar competency use.The national issues concerning gay rights and marriage equality are also accommodated in the companys dedication to social justice. Ben & Jerrys official website states this commitment is grounded in our Companys core values, which include a deep respect for people inside and outside our company and an unshakable belief that all people deserve full and equal well-mannered rights. In 1989, they extended full benefits to unmarried partners of its employees, including same-sex partners. And in 2000, they advocated publicly in Vermont for the creation of civil unions.It should come as no surprise that Ben & Jerrys chose to commemorate its home states historic moment, while reinforcing the companys longstanding commitment to social justice and equality for all people despite race, ethnicity, religion or sexual prefere nce. The result was married man Hubby, a traditional and social media campaign surrounding the symbolic renaming of Ben & Jerrys popular ice cream flavor Chubby Hubby to Hubby Hubby. The campaign was planned to coincide with the bills enactment on September 1, 2009 and last through the calendar month of September.Ben & Jerrys partnered with liberty To Marry, an organization that campaigns for the right of same-sex couples to marry in the United States. unneurotic they aimed to raise awareness of the importance of marriage equality and, to show its support, would serve Hubby Hubby ice cream in Vermont Scoop Shops throughout the month of September. Goals of the Hubby Hubby campaign included encouraging other states to follow the trails of Vermont and other states legalizing gay marriage, promote the national conversation about why marriage equality matters, how to take action by driving consumers to Ben & Jerrys has a long history of commitment to social justic e, including gay rights.Its partnership with Freedom to Marry, a national leader in the movement for marriage equality, aims to raise awareness of the importance of marriage equality and to encourage other states to follow the blazing trails of Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, and Maine. Freedom to Marry promotes the national conversation about why marriage equality matters and brings together partner organizations into a larger whole a shared civil rights campaign.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Most Intriguing Person I Have Met Essay

IntroductionGod is omnipresent and omnipotent. His representatives atomic number 18 Angels whose food is only fasting. They fly in the air as they take themselves very light. God and His angels could send only leaders, messengers, prophets to earth to proclaim about the costlyness of God and to enable humanity to experience a fruitful livelihood by following virtues and distinctives of God. He was disappointed, when it did not return expected results.God was on the look out for permanent mortal who is faithful, honest and trus devilrthy and who represent His kind-of on earth. God fin bothy found experiences as his carnation, who would be kind, forbearing and pass on enough fortitude to transform hearts, minds and to turn out the gospel of gods goodness on earth. My mother was the most influential and inspirational person in my vitality until she passed away on February 28, 2004. Her heart was extraordinarily courageous, laborious working and self-reliant who lived a life in extreme hardships and confronted lachrymose situations.Read more Essay the person I value is my motherMothersBut deliveryman turning to them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, stop weeping for Me, but weep for yourselves and for your children. Jesus at the time of carrying cross was experiencing great pain and agony. sluice so, his heart moved when he saw women weeping for him. He felt that children should be the greatest priority in a womans life. Women who are the pillars of family, have the ability to transform lives through prayers. Prayer without penitence is a mere waste. Penitence brings tears and tears bring blessings from Heaven to families. This is exactly what Jesus meant by saying the above.Hard workHard work pays is what she believed all through. Her single income, was insufficient to make both ends meet. Her financial planning, domestic chores, and struggle is short inspiring, who had to question herself for every challenge she encountered and find answer all by hers elf alone. A unique life, while giving smiles outside, inside of her heart, there were volcanic pressures of all kinds and sizzles in life. My mother as a single parent, single income, executed hard work in rearing her children by providing good education, teaching life skills, settling the lives with good spouse and cherished the happiness with two daughters, two son-in-laws and four grand children. Spoke like a lioness with strangers and guarded her children like a hen that covered and protected her chickens under storms and strong winds.As a child I admired her initiativeness, courage and indispensable attitude. Amidst of huge loss in life, she sought happiness in devotion, gardening, social work and her grand children. Nobody could seize away her smiles and happiness even in the midst of lifes biggest storms.She prepared herself for every day. Her accostic approach to life was to see the positive side of life and never to look back. Her famous quote to me was see the scallywag, turn the page and do the work. Long time before, she predicted that I would become a writer one day, which absolutely became true. Her absence now, declares mothers are always right and it is good for sons and daughters to carry the legacy of goodness of mothers to further generations, to spread a network of humility. After all, children should reflect with the moralistic features of parents.CourageIn my childhood, her wake-me up rhyme was cocks bragging in the morning, to tell us to rise, for he who lies late, leave never be wise. For early to bed and early to rise, makes a man, healthy, wealthy and wise. She taught good things to her children and worked as a dedicated, determined and devoted mother.Bold and courageous even in trial period and solved the problems all by herself. She was deprived of all the happiness as a wife, she was entitled to, as any other woman. A Son who was expected to shoulder and strengthen his mother, in the absence of husband, suffered from a chronic sickness for two decades, and at last passed away leaving her in great agony and depressment. Her energies, finances, effort to make her son survive, in order to just keep back his presence on lifes long stage, were simply washed away with the passage of time. She survived this loss and tried to rebuild her life again, through her two daughters.Self-reliance & Self-less sharingHer another famous quote was the works performed early in the morning in due diligence and early born children will take you to a land of success. Situations make people strong, confident and courageous. She administered great respect for her sisters, brothers, friends and relatives and earned good name as courageous and hard working person. She respected, cared and helped all those she can in her employment. Cut the coat according to the cloth is what she believed in. Absolute and careful money management in providing needs for her children and without subject any debts, all the hard-earned money, she save d for her children.After her retirement from government service, I expected a little rest and happiness to come her way as old age demands. She was attacked from a stroke and suffered for three years on bed in her final stage of battle in life. This made me to let loose within, as to why good people are often chosen as silent sufferers and how things slip out of hand. A person who has passed through in like manner many extreme situations in life, underwent much more struggle even in the last days of her life. Truly her passing way made me a whole new person to realize, that often good things are to be preserved and the teachings of mother can never be ignored.ConclusionWhen Jesus consequently saw his mother, and the adherent standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman behold thy son Then he saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother And from that hour that disciple in additionk her unto his own homeMother Mary, loved Jesus as her dear son. On crucifixion of Jesu s, she was standing near the cross, in great tears. Jesus too was worried about his mother. He chose his dear disciple, to take care of Mother Mary. Jesus, discharged the duty as a dear son, which is a promising characteristic feature of Jesus, amidst of great suffering.Good mothers are very few, who sacrifice their lives and take pain to walk an extra mile each time, for others sake. Hard working, courageous, self-less and sacrificial mother is an extraordinary mother whose character is entirely divine and philosophical. Such lives are blessed and those generations of children often build an ethical and moralistic society. My mothers life was lead by Gods presence at every phase of her life and she did the best than any other ordinary mother could have done as better than what is received by her children, through her sincere and honest efforts. On her memorial service, the following lines were written by meYou have crosshatched our livesLeveled our wings.Just as birds fly with conf idenceWe lead our lives to this day.Your unproclaimed good deeds speaks to usAlthough, you are away from us.Help us to day and tomorrow.May the ecclesiastic bestow His presenceTo your near and dear offeringComfort and peace forever.Bid adieu Mother,***

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Police and armed force in the USA Essay

The second amendment of the US Constitution expresses that an all-around managed civilian army is important to the security of a relinquish state and that the privilege of the general population to keep and remain battle-ready might not encroach . The second revision is obsolete. At the time, it was made and sat okay when the state army was the general population. It was made with the goal that individuals could battle the British, which isnt the situation now, particularly now that we crap our own full-working fortify force and legal philosophy implementation. It was set aside a few minutes to hold a domineering government under wraps. We are not anymore under the stick out got of an oppressive government so for what reason would it be advisable for us to in any case have the revision? At the point when a town was assaulted it was the residents obligation to get their rifles and guard the town. There is currently nobody on US soil assaulting people groups homes and if there w as we have police and the armed force to shield us. In this time, there is no requirement for Minutemen, their firearms, or the second change.To proceed, there is a significant deception on the contradicting side. Offering firearms to plainly individuals who wouldnt utilize them for wrongdoing would not work. You cant separate amongst big(p) and awful individuals since all individuals with weapons are possibly awful. There is nothing preventing a generally blameless individual from perpetrating a wrongdoing with his firearm. You cant give just great individuals firearms. With respect to the general population that will be permitted to lawfully claim weapons (e.g. police, armed force) it is exceptionally unreasonable to expect there will be such a significant number of degenerate individuals that the great wont have the capacity to satisfactorily shield you. A nullification of the second correction would make America a more sterilize place to live and that is useful for everybody. The nullification would prompt bring down the measure of passings from firearms since weapons are a generous measure of passings in the US.Likewise, it would bring down wrongdoing rate all in all since individuals who utilize firearms to perpetrate violations, for example, theft, would never again have the capacity to do as such. Besides, the cash individuals would have spent on firearms could be spent on additional security highlights, similar to locks or alerts, rather than an apparatus of death. The handiness of weapons if much misrepresented. Right off the bat, there is no confirmation to show firearm proprietorship prevents general theft rate. Besides, a great many people have firearms to avoid theft, yet pulling a weapon on a thief could make him act fiercer. Thirdly, having a firearm could empower him to take it from you and kill you. Finally, all the more relating to families, a child could discover a weapon and execute him or herself as well as others. As indicated by th ese initial focuses it appears that firearms cause more mischief than help.I acknowledge that it was made by the establishing fathers and put in the first constitution, which influences it to appear to be entirely imperative, however, nowadays it is frank that the revision isnt as pertinent as it once seemed to be. In light of the undeniable contention about self-preservation, the police power and armed force, which werent set up before, are fit for assaulting us. Plus, if the individual assaulting you presumably wouldnt have a firearm, for what reason would it be a good idea for you to have one? To put it plainly, for the requirement for advancement of a nation, the purpose of a more secure nation, and the exposing of the need for weapons, I presume that the second correction ought to be revoked on the grounds that regardless of how unadulterated the individual or expectation, firearms can cause disorder among the all-inclusive community.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Inside Islam notes Essay

Islam means Peace and Submission (The slumber that comes from submission, the attention to God that comes from field pansy.) Allah Akbar means God is great. Sunni = 85% of Moslem population Shia = 10% Sufi less than 5% Islam is not only a religion of the Middle East largest population of Muslims is in India. Largest Islamic country is Indonesia. Of same faith tradition as both Christians and Jews Muslims & Jews are both monotheistic, differ only on mainly messianic theology Places of worship differ yet can coexist Spain fostered every(prenominal) three Abrahamic faiths during pre-Ferdinand and Isabella era (pre-1492) office staff 2 of 9 Pre Muslim Mecca, Quraish tribe, Muhammads early categorys & first vision, Quran, 1st chromatography column shahadah, and start of second pillar solicitation http// descended from Hagar and Ishmael, who fled to the desert Abraham, according to Muslim legend, built Kaba Quraysh tribe controlled Mecca as trading city. Later put icons and statues of heterogeneous tribal Gods inside Kaba so Mecca would become even more important as a pilgrimage site. Muhammad was born several generations later in 570 AD into a richesy family. His dad died, his grandfather sent him to live with trading caravans. As a young man he became a intellectual caravanier, married Khadijah Muhammad illiterate, so others recorded his recitationsQuran means recitation, a mix of poetry, stories, admonitions, advice and fightnings. slice 3 of 9 2nd pillar (prayer) go along, Muhammad gains followers, conflict with Meccans, Hijra, to Ummayad dynasty beginning of 3rd pillar http// gave sermons against polytheism to pilgrims arriving at the Kaba in Mecca was persecuted by Quraish Muhammad had no strong political ally, few followers initially. Journeyed to Yathrib (later named Medina, City of the Prophet) to negociate dispute between city states. Became year 0 in Isl amic calendar, 622 CE. Set up first Islamic community (Ummah)Meccans were enraged, attacked Medina to destroy Muslims. Battle of Badr, outnumbered by Meccans, yet Medinans won Muslims triumphed 630 AD Muslims returned to Mecca Cleansed Abrahams sacred temple (Kaba) of idols of pilgrims, kept the Kaba (lit. cube) as the central expression of monotheism Offered Meccans freedom for peace, many converted Arab tribes came to pay tribute to Muhammad and convert Umayyads 1st dynasty 750 Within a century of Muhammads death Muslims controlled more lay than the Roman EmpireTurkey to separate of China. Jews and Christians were exempt from conversion to Islam 3rd pillar Charity is heavily emphasized in the Quran, even more than the subordinate status of womenPart 4 of 9 3rd pillar, charity, continued 4th pillar, Ramadan, Abbasid dynasty Crusades Mongols http// Pillar Charity From everything you own you give 2.5% All money collected must be given to t hose in need One must follow the prodigal during the month of Ramadan as the 4th pillar Fast lasts from sunrise public treasury sunset Exceptions are made for the sick, weak, children, and the mothers who are expecting Its a time to intensify your efforts to build your relationship with God The festival of the great Eid (Lit. festival) of the breaking of the fast Shia split from the Sunni after the death of Hussein (680 AD) There was a discrepancy of how leaders should be put in place Shia believed that leaders should be necessitate descendants of Muhammad Sunni believed leaders should be elected democratically8th century g overageden age in Iraq, Abbasid dynasty arose in Bagdad Abbasids valued learning, Greek philosophy and natural science. Algebra invented, decimals, exponents. Medicine developed, orthopedics, mental illness treatment, surgery. Crusades Jerusalem is 3rd most sacred city for Muslims 1099 Christians slaughter 30k Muslims 1258 Genghis Khans grandson & his Mongols plundered BagdadPart 5 of 9 Mongol era 5th Pillar, Hajj in Spain, interfaith cooperation http// trace=relatedThe Mongol Khan becomes a Muslim,Lesser pilgrimage can be taken to Mecca at any time of the year (min 030) Hajj, the greater pilgrimage, occurs only once a year a. Ihram1 = 2 white cloths in which you leave behind be buried are worn during Hajj, significance is equality, Ihram2 is also = peaceful demeanor to accept all as brothers & sisters. b. Ablution (ritual washing) leads to first stage circumambulation 7 times God is the axis of ones life c. 2nd step is to march between 2 hills representing Hagars search for water for Ismael represents ones struggle in life d. Next day they travel to the plain of Arafat. Pilgrims walk in quiet prayer confessing sins at Mount of Arafat. e. Next, to Mina to throw stones at 3 pillars representing Satan, sins are forgiven f. Last event prayer service at KabaMuslim scholars uphold writings from hordes 71 1 CE Muslims arrive at Gibraltar a. Called Moors, dwelled in Andalusia, cities of Cordoba & Seville b. Horticulture, math, navigation developedc. Muslim, Jewish & Christian scholars worked together became a source for the RenaissancePart 6 of 9 Spain, Ottoman Empire place of women Colonialism http//, Christian re-conquest of Spain expelling Moors and forcing conversion or expulsion of Jews 1492 the Moors were kicked out of Spain 1453 Greek Constantinople bestial to Muslim troops name changed to Istanbul = Islam in Abundance Sultan was the ruler of Islamic Ottoman society. Sultan means ruler Sultans harem (Haram forbidden, taboo) group of concubines, in Western eyes they are dens of iniquity, but in Islamic practice they were centers of protection for women and sources for caucusing about political power Islamic polygamy all wives need to be treated equallyPart 7 of 9 Suez Canal France colonizes Algeria WWI colonialism Wahabism, jehad http// sense of high quality disparaged Muslims France took over northern Africa and the northern part of the Middle East, discouraging Arabic language and Islamic faith. England expanded into Egypt after creating the Suez Canal, also taking the Sinai Peninsula, Palestine, and Iraq. Ottomans sided with Germany in WWI, so England & France took Muslim lands when Germany lost (min 240) Muslim Brotherhood arose in Egypt in 1928Some Muslim states encouraged western style central authoritarian dictatorships Muslim Brotherhood resisted these. Following WW2 Muslims throughout European colonies rose up, demanding release from the European counties. Mohammad ibn Abdul Wahab became a leader in the Islamic world, preaching an ascetic, puritanical form of Islam Created Wahabism, founded Saudi-Arabian State, merging desert warrior spirit with puritanical reform. Very fundamental and radical form of IslamWas supported by Saud family, who woul d become rulers of Saudi Arabia Oil gave Saudis great wealth allowing them to expand Wahabist beliefs. Giving the money to organizations has caused an even more radical group of beliefs to arise Jihad = struggle. The greater jihad is the struggle of ones will against ones passions and weaknesses, an inner struggle. The lesser jihad is a defensive war, using just war criteria. Some groups called for a radical Jihad war against western nations The end justifying the means leads to terrorism.Osama Bin-Laden in particularPart 8 of 9 Malcolm X Israel Iran hostage crisis, Iraq http// X We (blacks) did not land on Plymouth Rock the rock was landed on us Walhid Farad formed the state of matter of Islam Elijah Poole joined him changed name to Elijah Muhammad & took charge in 1934 Malcolm Little perceive about Nation of Islam in Prison, changed name to Malcolm X Malcolm X What was your name before you lost it?Malcolm X came back from hajj inspired t o join Nation of Islam to traditional Islam Gunned down By 1975, Elijahs son brought about Malcolm Xs dream changed name to World Community of Islam Louis Farrakhan continued in old ways of separation Israel made a state in 1948. In 6 Day War in 1967 tensions increased with Muslims 1978 Irans Shah fell to Shiite Ayatollah Khomeini US cast asGreat Satan Students took US embassy workers in Tehran as hostages for 444 days Sadat in Egypt assassinated he had signed a peace treaty with Israel. Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990 coalition lead by US stopped him, imposed no-fly ZonePart 9 of 9 Suicide assail Islamic hell & heaven wrap up http// made people informed not only of radical fringe of Islam, but also of the peaceful Muslim neighbors. Even in heaven one cannot see God Pleas for peace Few stable & fair Muslim governments have replaced colonial governmentsPart 1 of 9 Intro and basic facts http// Part 2 of 9 Pre Muslim Mecca, Quraish tribe, Muhammads early years & first vision, Quran, 1st pillar shahadah, and start of 2nd pillar prayer http// Part 3 of 9 2nd pillar (prayer) continued, Muhammad gains followers, conflict with Meccans, Hijra, to Ummayad dynasty beginning of 3rd pillar http// Part 4 of 9 3rdpillar, charity, continued 4th pillar, Ramadan, Abbasid dynastyCrusades Mongols http// Part 5 of 9 Mongol era 5thPillar, Hajj in Spain, interfaith cooperation http// Part 6 of 9 Spain, Ottoman Empire place of women Colonialism http// Part 7 of 9 Suez Canal France colonizes Algeria WWI colonialism Wahabism, Jihad http// Part 8 of 9 Malcolm X Israel Iran hostage crisis, Iraq http// Part 9 of 9 Suicide bombi ng Islamic hell & heaven wrap up http//