Monday, September 30, 2019
Turning point in Ã¢â¬Å"The Truman ShowÃ¢â¬ In the film The Truman Show directed by Peter Weir, Weir brings out messages about how reality TV is perceived by the world and what it really is through the final scene in the movie where Truman goes out to sea and finally escapes from Seahaven. I think it was a turning point of this film because it reveals a system of a reality TV, which manipulates and controls everything possible but the only ones that belong to it. In the final scene, Truman goes out to sea to get out of Seahaven.Christof tracks Truman down in the sea and makes an attempt to make Truman get back to the island by creating a lethal artificial storm. Despite the storm, Truman is determined to continue his voyage, but then gets surrounded by the painted sky. Christof gives a last try by talking to Truman nevertheless Truman stays steadfast and exits the stage. In this scene, there are many elements and techniques that turn Truman into our hero. In this scene, Truman is always filmed by using low angle shots, making the audience feel that they are looking up to him.Also, the boat that he was on is called Ã¢â¬Å"Santa MariaÃ¢â¬ (the bless Virgin Mary). Furthermore, a flag on the boat had a symbol of an eagle, which represents freedom, power, and victory to Truman. Later when he hits the painted sky he walks on false water, which resembles one of JesusÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to walk on water referring Truman as God who we admire. This final scene is considered to be a turning point, because many change occurs due to TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s strong will. Changes that occurred are: Truman himself, mood, and the nature of the show. First of al the most noticeable change was a change in Truman himself.He breaks free from the obstacles that block him from getting out of Seahaven by overcoming his fear of water (aqua phobia) and misleads everyone else involved in his show. The mood of the scene changes. The scene starts off with sunny and calm weather where the sky is blue and creates a happy and relaxing mood. However, as Chistof creates a storm towards Truman, the tone goes down somber by using grey clouds, the Sun disappearing, with a lot of loud banging noises, and leads to TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s distorted face due to his grief after knowing all the truth.Nonetheless as the film approaches its very end Truman reveals the real nature of the show by differentiating himself from the rest still involved in the show, and exits out the door. It is followed by a shock and pity on ChristofÃ¢â¬â¢s face, audience in the cafeteria, and the security guards finding Ã¢â¬Å"something else to watchÃ¢â¬ showing that they were all exploiting Truman by deceiving him, contrasting with TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s genuineness. Furthermore, the final scene is a turning point because it reveals a true system of a reality TV, contrasted to what we thought it was.Christof keeps on boasting that the show is the most genuine and pure as it could be, however, that is inconsistent wit h the unreality of the reality show. Throughout the film everything is controlled, his powers, his wife, and his friends are all fake, his parents and family, friends are all actors reading out the lines, which limits the possibility of Truman contacting with the outside of Seahaven, the reality. However TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s Genuineness stems from who he is inside. Christof sees himself as having created an ideal paradise for Truman, which is a digital garden of Eden in which Truman can be forever innocent, forever pure.His delusions of Godhood lead him to believe that he has created who Truman is. The falsity of ChristofÃ¢â¬â¢s anticipation to Truman leaving the world is a message that controlling the memories doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean controlling the soul. TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s liberation of the soul comes from embracing the love for the woman he once saw, Sylvia. His request for her using the simple tools of photos of women in fashion magazines cropped and rearranged into her face represents hi s triumph of his desire for his love over his physical barrier, which surrounds him.Truman thinks freedom is more important than safety, and would rather take a huge risk to get it. As an example, Truman is holding a finished photo of a resemblance to Sylvia on the boat. Increasingly, we live in a Truman universe as well, saturated by advertisements and we are manipulated by basic film techniques they use. In the film Truman struggles to get out of the show whereas we struggle to be a part of the show, we go for popularity. Truman freed himself from the imprisonment, but the other haventÃ¢â¬â¢, and proves that Truman wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the creation of Chrsitof.Reality TV is a highly dramatized structure and attificial life. It bridges the gap between fiction and life by fusing two, creating verite performances surrounded by scripted elements. The Truman Show feeds a script to everyone but Truman, but the script is invisible, by managing everyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue to minimize Truma nÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions with every other human being in his life, except the two people who go off the script, his dad and Sylvia. His thoughts cannot be controlled.Reality TV pulls strings of our instincts and by refusing to choose a world that may be dangerous and threatening, but also real, Truman chooses the reality and freedom over the enslavement of entertainment. When he leaves, Truman has found freedom, those viewers still watching have not. In conclusion, via the final scene, which is considered as a turning point due to its exposure of a true system of a reality show in order to prove that reality TV shows can only manipulate the ones that belong to it.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
My Other poem that I have analysed is Ã¢â¬Å"Charge of the Light BrigadeÃ¢â¬ written by Alfred Lord Tennyson about the Crimean war in 1855. In this poem Tennyson has a positive point of view which is the opposite of Owen. Tennyson shows a patriotic view with the words Ã¢â¬Å"HeroÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"NobleÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"GloryÃ¢â¬ to fight for and die for your country; ironically that is the meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ . Owen has written Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ in stanzas. The pace of the first stanza is really slow Ã¢â¬Å"Bent double, like old beggars under sacksÃ¢â¬ . This shows the tiredness of the soldiers, therefore that they are really weak and tired mainly because of the lack of sleep during war. This therefore leads to fatigue, injury and disease. They would have been Ã¢â¬Å"Bent doubleÃ¢â¬ because of all the heavy equipment they have to carry during war. It is shocking how he compares the soldiers to Ã¢â¬Å"oldÃ¢â¬ because normally you would expect a soldier to be fighting fit. The words Ã¢â¬Å"TrudgedÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Limped onÃ¢â¬ also help emphasise how tired the soldiers would have been. This also shows the effect of the war on the soldiers. The second stanza the pace quickens rapidly with the use of short sentences. Ã¢â¬Å"Gas! Gas! Quick, boys! Ã¢â¬ This how fast the soldiers react even though they are tired and exhausted but it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t just be there bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s that are tired there mindÃ¢â¬â¢s are as well. The words Ã¢â¬Å"FumblingÃ¢â¬ and FloundÃ¢â¬â¢ringÃ¢â¬ help to show the state of panic and urgency of the men are in. Ã¢â¬Å"The charge of the light brigadeÃ¢â¬ is written in a ballad form. The poem is about six hundred men who are on horse back during the Crimean war. He has written the poem in that form to help show and repeat key points. The first few lines say Ã¢â¬Å"half a league, half a league, half a league onwardsÃ¢â¬ . The use of this repetition is to show how far the men have come to fight for there country, All the way through the poem there is a dactylic rhythm to emphasis the horseÃ¢â¬â¢s hooves on the ground. Tennyson also says that no one argued the decision to send them to fight he says that Ã¢â¬Å"someone had blunderedÃ¢â¬ but still did not challenge the decision this therefore shows that they have respect for there senior offices and believed that it was their honour and glory to die for there country. When the soldiers were attacked in Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ they fled for their lives where as in Ã¢â¬Å"Charge of the light BrigadeÃ¢â¬ they still rode ahead to fight. The use of repetition Ã¢â¬ Canon on the right of them, Canon to the left of them, Canon in front of themÃ¢â¬ shows that the men had no where to go and most of them new that they would not be coming back but still went ahead. Unlike Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ the men where organised and knew exactly what to do and when. This shows courage and bravery. In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ it focuses on the imagery of war and Owen uses similes to show the unpleasant imagery of war. Ã¢â¬Å"As under a green sea, I saw him drowningÃ¢â¬ This shows that the amount of gas is drowning the soldier as if he was in the sea. Owen gives us a graphic piece of imagery showing a soldier dying a slow and painful death. Ã¢â¬Å"White eyes writhing in his faceÃ¢â¬ . This shows that he could only see the whites of his eyes which means he was either dead or in extreme pain. The word writhing shows how much pain the soldier is in because Owen could have used the word painful but instead he tries to make the reader understand the amount of pain the soldier is in. Ã¢â¬Å"Charge of the light brigadeÃ¢â¬ focuses on the number of soldiers and also the number that died Ã¢â¬Å"Not the six hundredÃ¢â¬ This shows that there no longer Ã¢â¬Å"six hundred menÃ¢â¬ because many of them had died and there are only a few left. Tennyson also mentions The Six Hundred at the end of every stanza to make the reader remember the phrase. Tennyson also uses metaphors to show the horror of war. In both stanzas 1 and 2 he mentions Ã¢â¬Å"The valley of deathÃ¢â¬ , and in stanza 3 he says both Ã¢â¬Å"Jaws of deathÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Mouth of hellÃ¢â¬ . By saying the Ã¢â¬Å"The valley of deathÃ¢â¬ it suggest that the soldiers have no chance of surviving. This also makes the soldier look more noble and brave to the reader. Tennyson also states how many soldier died. Ã¢â¬Å"Then they rode back, but not, not the six hundredÃ¢â¬ . He repeats the word Ã¢â¬Å"notÃ¢â¬ to show how many of the soldiers died in the battle. Instead of focusing on the dead for to long he moves to how heroic the soldiers were with lines such as Ã¢â¬Å"When can the glory fade? Ã¢â¬ He uses the rhetorical question to say that they should always be remembered for their bravery. He has personified Ã¢â¬Å"deathÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"hellÃ¢â¬ to help emphasis their ongoing battle with the devil. To help show how they do not want to give up even though they are fighting a losing battle. The Gas attack makes all the men feel guilty because they cannot save their companion from a slow and painful death. Ã¢â¬Å"As a green sea, I saw him drowning, in all my dreams, before my helpless eyesÃ¢â¬ . The word Ã¢â¬Å"helplessÃ¢â¬ help to show how the fellow soldiers couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything to help. Owen changes to the past tense to show that his nightmares are just as real as when they actually happened. Ã¢â¬Å"We cursed through sludgeÃ¢â¬ , makes his audience imagine how hard and tiring it is to walk yet alone fight in a war. Owen uses metaphors to help you imagine the horrific sights of war. Ã¢â¬Å"Under a green sea, I saw him drowning. Ã¢â¬ This makes the reader imagine the Ã¢â¬Å"Green gasÃ¢â¬ covering the soldier and also making his insides drown. There was no cure for the Ã¢â¬Å"green gas. Ã¢â¬ Then he describes the gas as, Ã¢â¬Å"obscene as cancerÃ¢â¬ he makes this comparison because there is also no cure for cancer this shows how bad it must have been because there is nothing worse than cancer. In my opinion TennysonÃ¢â¬â¢s and OwensÃ¢â¬â¢s views are different, as Tennyson gives us a distanced account of the battle because he was not personally involved in the Crimean war. Tennyson uses collective terms like Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"TheirÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Six hundredÃ¢â¬ because he would not have known about specific cases like Owen does. However Tennyson does try to focus on the determination of the soldiers Ã¢â¬Å"while horse and hero fellÃ¢â¬ although their fellow soldiers kept falling they still had the determination to fight. In TennysonÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes they are all Ã¢â¬Å"heroesÃ¢â¬ because they have died for their country. Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Charge of the light brigadeÃ¢â¬ differ because Owen actually took part in the war he is writing about where as Tennyson did not fight in the Crimean war. Owen seems have a negative approach to war saying there is no cure for the damage that war creates, Ã¢â¬Å"obscene as cancerÃ¢â¬ , and also includes sarcasm aimed at Jessie Pope and her poem Ã¢â¬Å"WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s for a gameÃ¢â¬ which said it was sweet and right to die for your country. Owen mocks this by saying that this is a Ã¢â¬Å"LieÃ¢â¬ because he has experienced war first hand and also thinks that lots of innocent people are dying for no apparent reason. The use a capital L in Ã¢â¬Å"lieÃ¢â¬ is to help emphasises what he thinks of Jessie popes poem. Overall Owen shows a very negative view on the war but on the other hand Tennyson shows a view towards war. Owens negative view is based on him actually being there where as TennysonÃ¢â¬â¢s positive views are based on him not fighting during the war. Owen has specific cases of horrific injuries, death, and sickening sights. Tennyson seems to focus on the group of soldiers collectively and does not have the same first hand accounts that Owen has. The poet that I believe more would have been Owen because of the use of his first hand cases such as the Ã¢â¬Å"Gas attackÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Whites of the eyes in his headÃ¢â¬ . Where as Tennyson on speaks as a collectiveness not as individuals. This piece of coursework has helped to focus on both the bad sides and the good sides of war. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not the physical injuries that can harm you itÃ¢â¬â¢s also the mental injuries of seeing other people shot in front of your eyes. But it also shows me how brave and noble soldiers are to fight for their country. This has definitely changed my perception of war.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Satisfying all stakeholders when the business is competing in mature product markets is difficult. Discuss - Essay Example Therefore, the management should ensure that the business is making profits all through the year. This is not an easy task especially when a firm is in the mature competition stage. In this stage, all the competitors have established markets. They are all struggling to get an extra market to expand their operational sphere (Neale and Haslam, 1994:120). Since the stakeholders have entrusted the management to deal with the business, they will only require satisfactory results. As such, most of the managers have to develop strategies that will improve on the overall business performance. In many developed countries, many businesses have been in the market for a long time. Therefore, they have firmly established their business links. This leaves a mature competitive market. In such a market, most of the industries fight for a low margin that is not aligned to a certain product. Therefore, they have to be convincing enough to attract such a market. For example, close to 80 percent of the industries in the United States are already in the mature market bracket. Therefore, they have to compete in ensuring they develop a wider market niche. This could be rather indulging as all of them are utilising varying strategies. Impressing stakeholders in a mature competitive environment is a hard task especially when the demand for the product is saturated. This is as a result of too much supply from a large number of manufacturers and industries, thereby making the market saturated. As such, the demand for the products only increases in negligible proportions. In some situations, the demand for products in this market slowly declines, which reflects a similar record in the sales of individual companies. In such an instance, the industry or firm should look for ways of attracting customers from the saturated market, who are already allied to specific products. Therefore, they have to practically convince the market to start using their products and abandon the others from the c ompetitors. This is harder as compared to approaching a new market that does not have any experience in using product of such nature. A mature market has industries and firms that have a considerable financial muscle. Therefore, investing in emergent technologies can add huge value to managing the value chain. As such, companies invest in modern technologies which are used to improve on efficiency in production. Since their production is in large scale, they accrue the benefits of economies of large scale production (Haslam, Neale and Johal, 2000:67). In such a situation, the market is flooded with goods from different industries and firms, which is uncontrollable in liberalised markets. Practically, these businesses reduce overheads in relation to transport, labour and manufacturing when producing and supplying the products in the market on large scale basis. This could lead to high discount rates to consumers thereby reducing the prices of commodities across the entire supply chai n. This could drive some other industries out of the market as the pricing drop could render theirs uncompetitive. Since time immemorial, there has been no generation of specific solutions or formulas that could be used by businesses in a mature competition. As a fact, they have to generate different strategies in ensuring they have a niche market (Ferrell and Hartline, 2010:541). Therefore, this makes it hard for the management to
Friday, September 27, 2019
Relationship between High School Drop Out Rate and Family Income - Essay Example Youngsters, who have not been able to procure appropriate formal education, are posing a threat to their nation. Research has shown that, these children are more likely to get into dangerous criminal activities either due to want of money or by peer group effect. There is also danger of drugs, alcohol, smoking and teenage pregnancy. Hence it is important to know why these children drop out of school and what you can do to help them successfully complete their graduation and a lead a happy life. A study by the U.S. Department of Commerce has revealed that this dropout rate is related to race, sex, region of residence, age and family income (NCES1 1972-2001). Other factors include health and disability, peer group effect, family disputes, parental awareness, real life events, academic challenges, lack of motivation and boring teaching (The silent killer). In our discussion, we shall concentrate on the relationship of high school dropout rate and low family income, because, of all the factors, which influence high school drop out rate, family income is the most vulnerable. According to the Current Population Survey (CPS), Oct 2004, Ã¢â¬ËHigh School DropoutÃ¢â¬â¢ is defined as the proportion of young people, aged 16 through 24, who are out of school and who have not earned a high school credential (NCES 2004). However, the California Basic Educational Data System, 2006, defines Ã¢â¬ËHigh School DropoutÃ¢â¬â¢ rate as estimated percentage of public high school students who drop out of high school, based on the four-year derived dropout rate, which is an estimate of the percentage of students who would drop out in a four-year period based on data collected for a single year (CBEDS2, 2006). According to the CPS, the school dropout rate for the year 2003-2004 was about 5 per 100 students enrolled. Also, the previous yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ statistics prompted there has been a decline in the high school dropout rates from the year 1972 through 1990 but after that there
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Kingston, Maxine Hong, ed. Veterans of War, Veterans of Peace. Kihei, Hawaii Koa Books, 2006 - Essay Example Along with the things the also carry terror, love, dignity with a poise, grief and longing. When Lt.Cross was singled out from group of Army men, O'Brien presents in detail about the inner feelings and thoughts and stress that Lt.Cross carries the lives of his men along with his things. The Story is a reflection to the thoughts of the readers about the War of Vietnam and also about the soldiers who are fighting in the war. O'Brien was shot thrice and got wounded and so he was discharged from the duty of fighting. He was ordered to serve the supplies to the men of Battalion from the company. With the transfer he was teared from the map of Vietnam. The story revolves around Bobby Jorgenson. He was in the place of Rat in the team of Army on whom O'Brien developed lot of anger. O'Brien had given importance to what soldiers do at night. He hated a lot to roam about night and delivered the pans of hatred and yearnings about Jorgenson. According to him the nights are totally different from the day as spending nights in the Army formed this opinion. The old company was so different in the night with him and all this urged to take revenge on Jogerson.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Low-risk 1 - Essay Example (Dr. Andrew Wood) Puritans were people were very impressive and were greatly determined to make an impact on the new generation. The puritans were Englishmen who emerged from the Elizabethan era. They were hopeful and cheerful people who had a Ã¢â¬Å"Can-DoÃ¢â¬ attitude and were willing to accept any challenge with great courage. The puritans whenever they used to have a problem with other people or some influential powers they would sort out the matter through negotiations and in accordance with the teachings of Christianity. The main and only purpose of the Puritans was just prayer and nothing else. To them the solution to every problem was in the teachings of God. For them their faith did not just meant going to Sunday mass but it was more than that, they were close to God in almost every way of their life. Due to their Biblical Christianity they suffered a lot as they were treated very badly by the established Church and the English Crown. In short the Puritans were people who were cheerful ha ving great faith in God which they passed it to their children no matter what the consequences were. (Gavin Finley) "Noe man is made more honorable than another or more wealthy &c., out of any particular and singular respect to himself, but for the glory of his creator and the common good of the creature, man" (p. 1). (John Winthrop) (Dr. Andrew Wood) According to Winthrop the Puritans should treat all the people equally irrespective of them being wealthy or poor. People should take the difficulties of their lives as a test which is given to them by God and no one should consider himself as more superior to others on the basis of wealth. (Dr. Andrew
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
KEY DEBATES IN MEDIA STUDIES - Essay Example The song competition unites all countries that are geographically located on the territory of Europe in attempt to define the best performance with the help of free televoting. Though the quality of the music on the contest is sometimes very disputable (because most singers and bands choose pop as a preferable genre) the overall impact of the event on European society is rather significant. First of all, it is believed to shape the direction and trends in European cultural development as the Eurovision promotes live performance and unique, and that is why non-trivial, show on the stage. Several world famous stars, such as ABBA for instance, first appeared as participants of the contest. However, many viewers claim that the Eurovision can be regarded as a political show first of all because it reflects Europeans` preferences and negative tendencies in perception of certain countries. The contest also demonstrates quite vividly which countries and the nations of which countries have go od relationships and which relationships are tense. Last year the victory of the Austrian contestant, Conchita Wurst who represents herself as a drag queen, set the whole cultural world in turmoil and provoked active debates regarding the relevance and the influence of the event. Therefore, it is possible to suggest the Eurovision is one of the most controversial music contests on the planet which has its political and cultural implications for the population of Europe and its representation in media must be performed with the help of different, sometimes even opposite approaches. In this paper I will try to analyze how media can utilize various tactics and emphasize different priorities depending on its relation to the realms of state and politics and culture. To begin with it is still necessary to create some adequate image of the Eurovision song contest. Most common people in Europe
Monday, September 23, 2019
Should students use citation - Research Paper Example In learning institutions, students should be encouraged to come up with their pieces of work. For the world to progress there is a need for more innovations and creative ideas. Through plagiarism, students will not realize their potential. From my own understanding of plagiarism, I consider it as an offense since a student who is involved in plagiarism does not understand the dangers. Further still, I believe that a student with the act of copying other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas does not allow the learning process to take place. As such, the transfer of knowledge is limited since whatever they present for assessment is not their work. It thus becomes hard for the examiner to gauge the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s capability. In view of this, the essay critically discusses the statement Ã¢â¬Å"should students be punished when they plagiarizeÃ¢â¬ through analyzing the opposing and supporting side. With the development of technology, copy and pasting an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s work has been made easy for students. Some of the students end up copy pasting even an entire work of authorship even without giving credit to the authors. To curb plagiarism, students should be made to understand that, they attend colleges and universities so that they make the world a better place. Coming up with your work as a student, encourages creativity and innovation. Students must identify the gaps that exist in the academic field and come up with ways of filling them. Through plagiarism, a student concludes that they cannot come up with their ideas to increase knowledge in the academic field. In learning institutions, students are expected to give original work to their teachers or lecturers. There is a need for integrity, and most of the learning institutions promote academic honesty (Roig, 2010). Apart from Copy and pasting, there are other forms of plagiarism. There are other forms of plagiarism which most of the times they are overlooked. Submitting an assignment that one has not done is a form of plagiarism. The
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Rhetorical Analysis - Essay Example Half of the participants were told to leave their email alerts on while the other half were told only to check their emails three times daily. After a week the participants who checked email frequently were told to check only three times while the other group was told to check frequently. All the other factors remained constant. They observed that the participants were more stressed when they were told to check their emails more frequently. Evidently, the authors aim at proving that frequent viewing on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s email might not be healthy, but at that same time warns that it might not be an easy task. The article begins with the questions, Ã¢â¬Å"Is email overload, bad for you?Ã¢â¬ . This question is used at the beginning of the article with the sole reason of making sure that the readers have the question in mind as they go through the rest of the article. It is like a way through which the writers notify the readers of the article exactly what the article is going to cover. The writers proceed by admitting that the question is rather a tricky question given the fact that there have been both sides of the argument, with both sides being keen on the evidence that they give for their assertion. The use of an example, in the first paragraph helps in giving more light on the exact possible consequences of frequently reading emails. Kuslev and Dunn choose to sue experimental evidence to prove their case. Through the case study discussed in the article, Kostadin Kuslev and Elizabeth Dunn are trying to prove to their readers that their assertion is not based on some assumption but some fact that can be proved. The practical scenarios tend to attract the attention of the audience by letting them know that the argument that frequent email reading can actually lead to stress. Through the presented case study, the authors are able to bring their audience closer to accepting their argument. Despite the fact that the
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Globalization, Ethics and Islam Essay Ian Markham in his book stated his view of religion and its value to human race. Just like the view of Said Nursi, his source of ideology, he firmly believed in world peace that is founded on deep religious ethics. For Markham, all religions of the world have responsibility and authority in keeping moral ethics alive in the society. This is contrary to the view of Alasdair MacIntyre who claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"there are adequate non-religious alternative foundations for ethicsÃ¢â¬ (p. 66); Aristotle who said that moral assertion is Ã¢â¬Å"an intelligible frameworkÃ¢â¬ (p. 68); and other names in history like Kant, Hume. Globalization therefore, will make its sense in the absence of hate and war, and in upholding ethical values instituted in religious beliefs worldwide. Though he accepts justification for ethics of other religion, yet he believes that Islam faith could draw clearly the idea of ethical system. Religions of the world should establish its own paradigm of ethics for Markham puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ because moral factors should (and in practice Ã¢â¬â do) shape our public lifeÃ¢â¬ (p. 68). He further added, Ã¢â¬Å"The basic commitment to decency in our public discourse is a moral judgment that the public square needs. Ã¢â¬ Furthermore, Markham also believes that the place of religion is private and not public, which he meant that the State should not control the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs and practices but the same should not allow any public expression of religious belief for Ã¢â¬Å"public disorder would ensueÃ¢â¬ (p. 67). Therefore, as Markham tried to explain, religion has greater responsibility in maintaining world peace if it holds to the principles of morality and ethicss; for only when faith made sense, ethical framework would not have any sense either. Comparative Analysis of MarkhamÃ¢â¬â¢s View and Thomas MichelÃ¢â¬â¢s on Issue of Ethics and Globalization Thomas Michel the advocate of Catholic faith believes that there are similarities in his view and that of Markham on issue of religion and world peace, which he called Ã¢â¬Å"the ethics of peaceÃ¢â¬ (p. 37). He recognized the contribution of these two great persons to the topic. Pope John Paul II on WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Day in 2002 delivered a message that proposed, Ã¢â¬Å"True peace must rest on Ã¢â¬ ¦justice and forgivenessÃ¢â¬ (p. 37). Pope explained that peace in form of Ã¢â¬Ëcease-fireÃ¢â¬â¢ only amplify the issue; while peace may be attained by getting to the Ã¢â¬Å"heart of the conflict and try to heal human relationsÃ¢â¬ (p. 38). He added, when there is oppression or injustice peace is impossible. The resolution for world peace according to Pope is justice in forms of moral virtue and legal guarantee; these, he believed are the elements of international system of relations among peoples Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"full respect for rights and responsibilitiesÃ¢â¬ (p. 38). This concept is closely related with the idea presented by Markham in which, religion has to stand on idea of having moral and ethical standard established and practiced in the society. Markham clearly emphasized in his book that the world Ã¢â¬Å"needs deeply committed orthodox, exponents of each tradition to outline an ethical system that is both true to the beliefs and practices of that traditionÃ¢â¬ (p. 65). The Pope emphasized in the message the importance of justice and forgiveness as virtues people must embrace to have peace. QurÃ¢â¬â¢an teaches about patience, which is a predominant virtue in that book. Yusuf 12 verse 90 of QurÃ¢â¬â¢an says, Ã¢â¬Å"One who is mindful of God and patient indeed God will not forfeit the recompense due to those who do good. Ã¢â¬ Work Cited Markham, Ian S. and Ozdemir, Ibrahim. Globalization, Ethics and Islam: The Case of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Burlington, USA: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. , 2005
Friday, September 20, 2019
Mutual Trust and Confidence (MTC) in an Employment Contract Sophie CanningÃ Mutual trust and confidence (MTC) is a central term in implied terms of an employment contract. MTC is an implied term which dictates that the employer will not conduct himself in such a way as to destroy or seriously damage the relationship of confidence and trust between the employer and employee. The common law development of MTC was influenced by legislation, statutory procedure for unfair dismissal and also had an impact on the way judges view MTC. The foundations for the implied term of MTC were laid down by Addis v. Gramophone Co. Ltd which set out that in wrongful dismissal cases, there was no compensation in common law action for 1) the manner of dismissal, 2) the injured feelings, or 3) losses sustained from post dismissal. The notion of MTC was not established in this case, but this case later helped explore the implied term of MTC. Courtaulds Northern Textiles Ltd v Andrew gave MTC a narrative formulation. MTC also arose out unfair dismissal and constructive dismissal claims, where the claimant wished to establish constructive dismissal and had to show there had been a breach of contract. However, this could not always been proved and therefore there was a shift and people started arguing the employers behaviour undermined the employment relationship. The term of MTC was formally recognised in Malik v. BCCI, where it was described it as a portmanteau obligation by Lord Nicholls and also opened u p the opportunity to claim damages for undermining MTC. Malik ultimately contradicts the third limb in Addis as it allowed compensation for stigma damage. The second limb from Addis was also challenged in Gogay V Hertfordshire County when a care worker was suspended following accusations of child abuse and, from this, suffered from a psychiatric illness. The care worker was awarded damages for the breach of MTC; going against Addis which stated there was no remedy at common law for injured feelings. However, both Addis and Malik arose from claims during the course of employment. The question arises whether there can be a common law remedy for at the time of the dismissal. This is answered in Johnson v Unisys where it was identified that in the common law of wrongful dismissal, there cannot be a remedy for a breach of MTC at the time of dismissal. This rule was fashioned into the Johnson Exclusion Zone which is where common law claims based on a breach of MTC were pre-empted by the statutory claim for unfair dismissal. Some academics have showed contention towards the Johnson Exclusion Zone. Collins highlights that, in regard to unfair dismissal claims, the exclusion zone cannot be manoeuvred around, if the claim can be met by the statutory law of unfair dismissal or if the claim cannot be met by statutory law, the exclusion zone still applies.It was also stated in Edwards v Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust that the Johnson exclusion area h as been productive of anomalies and difficulties. Furthermore, more recent cases such as Bournemouth University Higher Education Corp v Buckland  and Tullett Prebon Plc v BGC Brokers LP have confirmed how fundamental MTC is, especially in the eyes of the court.Buckland demonstrated that apart from Johnson, the statutory context of MTC cannot be invoked to dilute the impact of the common law regime. Furthermore other cases have developed the law, in regard to constructive dismissal cases. Leeds Dental Team Ltd v Rose, in consideration of Tullett, required Tribunals to endeavour to find the employers intention; whether they had the intention to act in such a way as to destroy MTC with the intention to permit the employee to terminate the contract. The values of public law have also had a role in the emergence of MTC. MTC aims to guard against an abuse of power by the employer and protects the employee from an imbalance of power and an undermining of the relationship, mirroring the public law principles of regulating the power of public bodies. Brodie highlights this, underpinning that the most notable impacts of the implied obligation has been the way in which it has restricted an employers discretionary powers public law also serves to regulate the powers and discretions of public bodies. MTC also mirrors the values of public law as, as decided in Johnson, the employers power to dismiss is unfettered by implied duty. The rationale for this, as highlighted by Barmes, is that judicial imposition of fetters on dismissal powers would unconstitutionally undermine the legislative prohibition on unfair dismissalÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ it would give a common law cause of action to claimants who had been excluded by Parliament from el igibility to bring a statutory claim. Again, this stops an imbalance of power and an autocratic relationship between employer and employee. Natural justice also plays a role in MTC. Natural justice demands fairness and non-bias decisions and is a common law rule. Natural justice fits in with MTC as there is an obligation of MTC that renders illegitimate decisions and behaviour adjudged to be unacceptable in the modern workplace, trying to create a fair balance between the employers and employees. However the notion of natural justice within MTC is not entirely favoured. Neuberger stated that he does not consider it right to import the rules of natural justice, which are connected with judicial decisions and some administrative decisions, into the purely contractual relationship of employer and employee. Although the notion of MTC is one which is instrumental to the employment contract, it does have limitations. Firstly, MTC is arguably too broad, it encompasses too many obligations. MTC was described as being an overarching obligation implied by law as an incident of the contract of employment. However academics such as Cabrelli disagree with this statement and postulates that there is no evidence for the emergence of the implied duty of mutual trust and confidence as an umbrella principle. Conversely, the broad nature of MTC could be considered a positive aspect. Irving maintains that MTC is a flexible and fundamental concept, is likely to retain its importance whilst evolving further with the changing nature of employment relationships. The flexible of this term means it can change with and adhere to the needs of society. The Court of Appeal has sought to reduce the extensiveness of MTC. In Johnson injury arising dismissal was removed the overarching feature of MTC, although this did not extinguish its input when assessing damages. Despite that this was removed from the extensive list of things MTC encompasses, the removal of this is also a limitation. The principal that came from this is called the Johnson exclusion zone and is a limitation as it does not allow employees to recover damages for injuries sustained from the way they were dismissed even if it ;rongful or unfair. Lord Nicholls identified three problems from this; 1) a duplication of proceedings, one for common law action and the other for statutory action, 2) the existence of a boundary line means that in some cases an ongoing course of conduct may have to be split, 3) boundary lines may cause strange results. MTC, and the search for a boundary line in the Johnson exclusion zone, has also created tension between the common law and the statutory procedure. This was highlight in Eastwood, where it was underpinned that the practical consequences of the boundary betwe en common law and statutory rights and remedies are unsatisfactory and merit urgent attention by the Government and the legislature. There seems to be similar view from the judiciary concerning MTC. Lord Hoffman underpins that the statutory scheme of unfair dismissal does not allow parallel law development, as it would agonistic to Parliaments intention, and therefore further development of MTC would be impossible. Brodie highlights that the view of the judiciary is that the appropriate mechanism for regulation is provided by the law of unfair dismissal; hence restricting the proper ambit of the term of mutual trust and confidence. Brodie also underpins that not allowing statutory compensation limits to circumvent Parliaments intention has a wider public interest, and is not just about equitable remedies. So on this; it seems that the courts view on MTC is that it should keep well within the ambit of Parliaments intentions, however in doing so, could prohibit the development of MTC. To conclude, it is therefore clear that the evolution of MTC has been influence by unfair dismissal legislation and Parliaments intention and has ties with Public Law values such as natural justice. The Johnson Exclusion Clause has brought with it a lot of limitations as well as the statutory procedures which limit the common law remedies and arguably MTC from further developing fully. Furthermore, the judges seem to be more concerned with providing a remedy in line with Parliaments intention rather than providing a common law remedy that is equitable which also could arguably be limiting the development of MTC fully and properly. Words 1479 Bibliography Primary Sources: Cases: Addis v. Gramophone Co. Ltd.  A.C. 488 Bournemouth University Higher Education Corp v Buckland  EWCA Civ 121;  Q.B. 323 Courtaulds Northern Textiles Ltd v Andrew  IRLR 84 Eastwood v Magnox Electric Plc  UKHL 35 Edwards v Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust  UKSC 58 Gogay V Hertfordshire County  EWCA Civ 228;  IRLR 703 Johnson v Unisys  1 AC 518 Leeds Dental Team Ltd v Rose  I.C.R. 94 Malik v. BCCI  I.R.L.R. 462 Mclory and Others v Post Office  1 All ER 457 Tullett Prebon Plc v BGC Brokers LP  EWCA Civ 131;  I.R.L.R. 420 Woods v WM Car Services  ICR 666 Legislation: Employment Rights Act 1996 Secondary Sources: Books: Pitt, G, Pitts Employment Law (2016, 10th ed, Sweet Maxwell), Samuels, H and Webley, L, Public Law: Texts, Cases, and Materials (2015, OUP) 3rd Ed Journals: Barmes, L, Common Law Implied Terms And Behavioural Standards At Work  ILJ 35 Barnard, C Cherries: one bite or two?  CLJUK 27 Barnard, C and Merrett, L, Winners And Losers: Edwards and The Unfair Law Of Dismissal  C.L.J 313 Brodie, D, Legal coherence and the employment revolution  Law Quarterly Review 604 Brodie, D, Mutual Trust And Confidence: Catalysts, Constraints And Commonality  ILJ 329 Brodie, D, Mutual Trust And Confidence: Further Clarification  Employment Law Bulletin 2 Cabrelli, D, The Implied Duty of Mutual Trust and Confidence: An Emerging Overarching Principle? (2005, ILJ Vol 34) Collins, H, Compensation For Dismissal: In Search Of Principle  ILJ 208 Irving, D, The role and development of mutual trust and confidence as an implied term of the contract of employment  Coventry Law Journal 22 Julies Enterprise Limiteds (JEL) company handbook gave the company the right to change the contents of the handbook and introduce new policies, depending on the business. However, generally there cannot be a variation of terms unilaterally. Lord Justice Asquith stated on the matter of unilateral changes, that [a]n unaccepted repudiation is a thing writ in water underpinning the need for a bilateral variation of terms. JELs right to change contents of the handbook and policies is analogous to Bateman v Asdawhere Asda created an express term in the employees contracts that stated they reserved the right to change and amend their handbook unilaterally. Both the courts agreed that Asda could reserve the right to change the handbook unilaterally as long as the term is clear and it is not unreasonable manner so far as to breach the term of mutual trust and confidence. Therefore following this, JEL has the right to amend the handbook, however changing the handbook to incorporate ran dom full body searches could be seen as unreasonable and a breach of mutual trust and confidence. S95 of the Employment Rights Act 1996 (ERA) underpins the nature to which someone can be dismissed. An employee can be dismissed with or without notice if the contract has been terminated by the employer. Commonly the dismissal is not effective until has been communicated by the employer and the employee had acknowledged it, as confirmed in Gisda Cyf v Barratt.The verbal dismissal from Jeremy can be seen as being communicated and therefore it can be said that Lizzie acknowledged it. The dismissal must also be clear and explicit. If it is ambiguous the courts must enquire as to what the reasonable man would understand as a dismissal. In Futty v D and D Brekkes Ltdthe employer told the claimant if you do not like the job, you can fuck off and this was construed by the claimant as being equivocal to a dismissal. However, this was not construed as a dismissal but as a resignation as the complainant found another job. It also has to be established whether Lizzie can claim for unfair or wrongful dismissal. Wrongful dismissal is concerned with a dismissal in breach of contract. There are two conditions that need to be fulfilled to have a successful claim; 1) there was a termination of a contract without or with inadequate notice and 2) the employer was not justified in doing so. On the other hand, unfair dismissal is concerned with a dismissal that is unfair and is statutory. Under the ERA it states that [a]n employee has the right not to be unfairly dismissed by his employer. To claim for unfair dismissal, there must be a qualifying period of employment of at least one year, as her employment is prior to 6 April 2012. As Jeremy had no good reason for dismissing Lizzie, or followed a disciplinary process, it can be seen as unfair. There are aspects of Lizzies dismissal that were wrongful and unfair. Generally, the law on references is that there is no legal obligation to provide a reference; but if one is given it must be fair. If Lizzie were to think the reference was unfair, she could claim for damages upon proving the unfair reference caused her to suffer a loss. Jeremy stating not to bother asking for a reference was therefore neither unfair nor wrongful as Jeremy does not have to provide one. At common law, no damages can be awarded for matters that arise from it such as psychiatric injury. Lizzie has suffered panic attacks and depression since her dismissal. This is indicative of wrongful dismissal. However, the courts cannot award damages in regard to psychiatric injuries that arise as a result of the dismissal, as per Johnson v Unisys.In this, the claimant had won a claim for unfair dismissal and tried to claim for wrongful dismissal, as the claimant had suffered a mental breakdown as a result of the way he was dismissed. However, the majority verdict was that there could be no claim as the judges could not justify developing a common law remedy to employees who suffered from psychiatric illnesses as a result of the way they were dismissed. Johnsonindicates that the judges are not prepared to extend the common law of wrongful dismissal in a way which would extend beyond that of unfair dismissal legislation. However, as per Eastwood v Magnox Electric Plc Lizzie could have claimed if the psychiatric injury arose before the dismissal; but this is not the case, so it is unlikely she could claim for psychiatric injury. Additionally, in Lizzies employment contract, it was an express term that she would receive 3 months notice. However Jeremy did not satisfy this and terminated her employment without notice. Under S86 ERA there is a statutory minimum notice period. For each year of employment, there must be one week of notice; if the employment is continuous and more than two years but less than twelve. Therefore, under this statutory minimum, Lizzie should be entitled to at least five weeks notice. However, Lizzies notice period was contractually 3 months and as she has not received this, there has been a breach of contract. Therefore it could be said that Lizzies dismissal was in fact wrongful as this is a breach of contract. Generally, there is no duty to give notice when the employee is in fundamental breach of contract. This is shown in Pepper v Webb where the employees refusal to follow instructions and continued to be insolent was held to be a breach of implied duty and therefore t he dismissal was warranted, despite there being no notice. Lizzie should claim for unfair dismissal. There are three types of remedies, in regard to unfair dismissal: reinstatement, re-engagement and compensation. Reinstatement is governed under S114 ERA and means an employer has to treat the complainant as if he had not been dismissed; effectively when the employee goes back to their job as if they had not been unfairly dismissed. However, it is unlikely she would want this. Moreover, re-engagement is governed under S115 ERA which states that the complainant will go back to the employer but to a different job. Again, it is doubtful she would want this. Additionally, compensation is governed by sections 118 to 124 ERA. S119 underpins the basic award received; 1) Half weeks pay for every year of employment when the claimant is aged under 22, 2) Weeks pay for work between 22-40 and 3) Week and a half pay for every year over 41. The Compensatory award is governed by S113 and conditions that the court must give an amount that is equi table and includes losses of earnings and any future loss, subject to aggravating circumstances, such as if the complainant had contribute to their dismissal in any way. Damages are subject to deductions; one of the most common deductions is the Polkey Deductions. This deduction occurs when there has been an unfair dismissal as the employer has failed to follow the correct procedure. If the claimant would have been dismissed anyway, the compensation would be reduced as to the likelihood as a percentage deduction. If Lizzie claims for unfair dismissal, it would be unlikely she could claim for wrongful as well. However, if she wanted to claim for wrongful instead, as it is concerned with the breach of a contract, the purpose of the remedy would to put the claimant back in a position they would have been before the breach. Damages in regard to the inability to comply with the express notice period can only stretch as far as the money earnt in that period of employment if notice had been given. This is highlighted in Focsa Services (UK) Ltd v. Birkettwhere Justice Clark stated that the fact [was] that Mr Birkett was dismissed. In so far as he did not receive his full notice, he is generally entitled to damages to reflect the pay during the notice period and no more. Lizzie did not receive a notice, even though it was contractual that she should have one and therefore Lizzie could claim for pay she would receive in those three months if she received notice. When the courts are analysing th e amount to give in damages, the court also have to consider other relevant factors such as bonuses. Lizzie, as part of remuneration, received a discretionary bonus and received this bonus ordinarily every year, bar last year. Generally, there can be a claim for bonuses if they are contractual, however as Lizzies was discretionary there is no duty to give a bonus if not contractual. Moreover, the courts aim to return the employee to the original position before the dismissal. This is fortified in Lavarack v Woods of Colchesterwhere an employee had been wrongfully dismissed and did not receive a bonus after dismissal, despite being subject to sporadic discretionary bonuses, as the employers had cut bonuses and raised the wage. The Court of Appeal held that the employers only had to fulfil the contractual obligation as everything else, including bonuses and raised pay, was discretionary. Words: 1520 Total Words: 2999 Bibliography Primary Sources: Cases: Bateman v Asda  IRLR 370 Eastwood v Magnox Electric Plc; McCabe v Cornwall County Council  1 AC 503 Focsa Services (UK) Ltd v. Birkett  IRLR 325 Futty v D and D Brekkes Ltd  IRLR 130 Gisda Cyf v Barratt  UKSC 41;  4 All E.R. 851 Howard v Pickford Tool Co  1 KB 417, 421 (Asquith LJ) Johnson v Unisys  UKHL 13;  1 A.C. 518 Lavarack v Woods of Colchester  1 QB 278 Pepper v Webb  1 W.L.R. 514 Legislation: Employment Rights Act 1996 Secondary Sources: Books: Gweneth Pitt, Pitts Employment Law (Sweet Maxwell, 2016) 10th ed Websites: ACAS, References: workers rights (gov.uk, 2016) accessed 20 December 2016 ACAS Understanding the Polkey deduction (ACAS, 2013) accessed 23 December 2016 Gov, Dismissal: Your Rights (gov.uk, 2016) accessed 16 January 2017 Gov, Dismissal: Your Rights (gov.uk, 2016) accessed 16 January 2017 Working Papers: Deakin, S, The Contract Of Employment: A Study In Legal Evolution (2001) ESRC Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge Working Paper No. 203, 33 accessed 19 December 2016  David Cabrelli, The Implied Duty of Mutual Trust and Confidence: An Emerging Overarching Principle?  Industrial Law Journal, Vol 34, 284  Woods v WM Car Services  ICR 666; Malik v. BCCI  I.R.L.R. 462  Employment Rights Act 1996  Addis v. Gramophone Co. Ltd.  A.C. 488  Ibid (Loreburn L.C.); Malik v. BCCI  I.R.L.R. 462 (Lord Nicholls)   IRLR 84  Lizzie Barmes, Common Law Implied Terms And Behavioural Standards At Work  ILJ 35  Gweneth Pitt, Pitts Employment Law (2016, 10th ed, Sweet Maxwell), 1554  ibid  Malik v. BCCI  I.R.L.R. 462  Catherine Barnard, Cherries: one bite or two?  CLJUK 27  Gweneth Pitt, Pitts Employment Law (2016, 10th ed, Sweet Maxwell)  Malik v. BCCI  I.R.L.R. 462  Addis v. Gramophone Co. Ltd.  A.C. 488  ibid   EWCA Civ 228;  IRLR 703  Addis v. Gramophone Co. Ltd.  A.C. 488  ibid  Malik v. BCCI  I.R.L.R. 462  Johnson v Unisys  1 AC 518  Catherine Barnard and Louise Merrett, Winners And Losers: Edwards and The Unfair Law Of Dismissal  C.L.J 313  Hugh Collins, Compensation For Dismissal: In Search Of Principle  ILJ 208
Thursday, September 19, 2019
INTRODUCTION Ã¢â¬Å"A brand is a distinguishing name and/or symbol intended to identify the goods or services of either on seller or group of sellers, and to differentiate those goods or services from those of competitorsÃ¢â¬ (Aaker 1991).A brand is the most valuable asset for an organization in the current competing world. Every organization is formulating strategies to make its brand popular and significant not only in markets but also in minds of the customers. Brand is the relation of customer with the brand. It is promise which a company makes to the customer about the goods and service they offer (Gregg 2002) Branding involves decisions that establish an identity for a product with the goal of distinguishing it from competitors offerings which means that brand becomes an important tool for marketer as consumer use it as guideline to identify certain products and their usefulness for the customer. The value of the brand can be determined by the concept of brand equity which has emerged as the one of the key factors in understanding the brand value (Krishnan 1996). Brand Equity Over years brand equity has been the topic of interest to the marketing companies. Brand equity can help evaluate brand and provide certainty around market share expectation (Peter).The most widely accepted definition of brand equity is the value accomplished by a particular brand(Krishnan and Hartline 2001). To gain competitive advantage in marketing perspective the central theme relies on building and sustaining brand equity. Brand equity as defined by (Wood 2000) is the relation of brand with its customers. Brand equity according to (Srivastav and Shocker 1991) constitutes of brand strength and brand value. According to (Motameni, Shah... ...dom), (2) behavioral response (i.e., purchase), (3) expressed over time, (4) by some decision-making unit, (5) with respect to one or more alternative brands out of a set of such brands, and (6) is a function of psychological (decision- making, evaluative) processes. This evidence is empirically supported by an experiment designed by (Jacob 1973). According to (Delgado and Aleman 2005) brand loyaltywhich is trust in brand ultimately results in the brand equity the study was conducted in the south eastern part of Spain and resulting from 271 surveys and the results indicated that brand trust evolves from the brand reliability (the feeling that brand would meet my expectations) and brand intentions (the feeling that brand is worth enough to solve all my problems) these two things leads to brand trust which leads to repurchase of the brand resulting in brand loyalty. Brand Equity Essay -- Business, Marketing INTRODUCTION Ã¢â¬Å"A brand is a distinguishing name and/or symbol intended to identify the goods or services of either on seller or group of sellers, and to differentiate those goods or services from those of competitorsÃ¢â¬ (Aaker 1991).A brand is the most valuable asset for an organization in the current competing world. Every organization is formulating strategies to make its brand popular and significant not only in markets but also in minds of the customers. Brand is the relation of customer with the brand. It is promise which a company makes to the customer about the goods and service they offer (Gregg 2002) Branding involves decisions that establish an identity for a product with the goal of distinguishing it from competitors offerings which means that brand becomes an important tool for marketer as consumer use it as guideline to identify certain products and their usefulness for the customer. The value of the brand can be determined by the concept of brand equity which has emerged as the one of the key factors in understanding the brand value (Krishnan 1996). Brand Equity Over years brand equity has been the topic of interest to the marketing companies. Brand equity can help evaluate brand and provide certainty around market share expectation (Peter).The most widely accepted definition of brand equity is the value accomplished by a particular brand(Krishnan and Hartline 2001). To gain competitive advantage in marketing perspective the central theme relies on building and sustaining brand equity. Brand equity as defined by (Wood 2000) is the relation of brand with its customers. Brand equity according to (Srivastav and Shocker 1991) constitutes of brand strength and brand value. According to (Motameni, Shah... ...dom), (2) behavioral response (i.e., purchase), (3) expressed over time, (4) by some decision-making unit, (5) with respect to one or more alternative brands out of a set of such brands, and (6) is a function of psychological (decision- making, evaluative) processes. This evidence is empirically supported by an experiment designed by (Jacob 1973). According to (Delgado and Aleman 2005) brand loyaltywhich is trust in brand ultimately results in the brand equity the study was conducted in the south eastern part of Spain and resulting from 271 surveys and the results indicated that brand trust evolves from the brand reliability (the feeling that brand would meet my expectations) and brand intentions (the feeling that brand is worth enough to solve all my problems) these two things leads to brand trust which leads to repurchase of the brand resulting in brand loyalty.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Adolf Hitler The interesting life of Adolf Hitler is not fully known to people. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, the fourth child of Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Hitler in the Austrian town of Braunau. Two of his siblings died from diphtheria when they were children, and one died shortly after birth. Alois was a customs official, illegitimate by birth, which was described by his housemaid as a "very strict but comfortable" man. His mother showered Young Adolf with love and affection. When Adolf was three years old, the family moved to Passau, along the Inn River on the German side of the border. A brother, Edmond, was born two years later. The family moved once more in 1895 to the farm community of Hafeld, 30 miles southwest of Linz. Another sister, Paula, was born in 1896, the sixth of the union, supplemented by a half brother and half sister from one of his father's two previous marriages. Following another family move, Adolf lived for six months across from a large Benedictine monastery. The monastery's coat of arms' most salient feature was a swastika. As a youngster, Adolf's dream was to enter the priesthood. While there is anecdotal evidence that Adolf's father regularly beat him during his childhood, it was not unusual for discipline to be enforced in that way during that period. By 1900, Hitler's talents as an artist surfaced. He did well enough in school to be eligible for either the university pre paratory "gymnasium" or the technical/scientific Realschule. Because the latter had a course in drawing, Adolf accepted his father's decision to enroll him in the Realschule. He did not do well there. Adolf's father died in 1903 after suffering a pleural hemorrhage. Adolf himself suffered from lung infections, and he quit school at the age of 16, partially the result of ill health and partially the result of poor school work. In 1906, Adolf was permitted to visit Vienna, but he was unable to gain admission to a prestigious art school. His mother developed terminal breast cancer and was treated by Dr. Edward Bloch, a Jewish doctor who served the poor. After an operation and excruciatingly painful and expensive treatments with a dangerous drug, she died on December 21, 1907. Hitler spent six years in Vienna, living on a small legacy from his father and an orphan's pension. Virtually penniless by 1909, he wandered Vienna as a transient, sleeping in bars, flophouses, and shelters for th e homeless, including, ironically, those financed by Jewish philanthropists.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Executive Summary F.M.C.G. Company Heinz is the most global U.S. based food company, with a world-class portfolio of powerful brands holding number 1 and number 2 market positions in more than 50 worldwide markets. There are many other famous brand names in the companyÃ ¡Ã ¦s portfolio besides Heinz itself, StarKist, Ore-Ida, Plasmon, and Watties. In fact, Heinz owns more than 200 brands around the world and makes over 5,700 varieties. The Company was founded in 1869 by Henry J Heinz called Heinz and Noble Company. In the 1870s during the depression the company went into voluntary liquidation. The company was started up again in 1876 by Henrys relatives John and Frederick the company was called F & J Heinz. In 1888 Henry bought the company back, in 1905 Henry bought the first Heinz British factory. British made backed beans first came of the lines in 1928 and spaghetti followed in 1930. We analyse Heinz using S.W.O.T., P.E.S.T. and PorterÃ ¡Ã ¦s five forces. S.W.O.T. Analysis: Strengths; Brand names, Market Leader and Slogans and Advertising. Weaknesses; Mature product, Production cost, and other market leaders Opportunities; Market growth, Brand name and Consumer Feedback Threats; Competitors and Brand loyalty P.E.S.T Analysis: Political Factors; Law, employee legislation and Health and Safety regulations Economic Factors; National Economy and Labour market Social Factors; Attitudes and Health conscious, Lifestyle changes and Population Technological Factors; New product development, Information technology and Infrastructure Development. PorterÃ ¡Ã ¦s five forces: Threat of Entry, is high Threat of Buyers, buying power is low Power of Suppliers, is low Threat of Substitutes, is medium Competitive Rivalry, is medium to high Introduction We have carried out a study on the F.M.C.G Company Heinz. Heinz is the most global U.S based food company, with a world-class portfolio of powerful brands holding number 1 and number 2 market positions in more than 50 worldwide markets. There are many other famous brand names in the companyÃ ¡Ã ¦s portfolio besides Heinz itself, StarKist, Ore-Ida, Plasmon, and Watties. In fact, Heinz owns more than 200 brands around the world and makes over 5,700 varieties. In this study we analyses the company using a S.W.O.T analysis, P.E.S.T analysis and PorterÃ ¡Ã ¦s Five Forces. We also answered the following two questions; 1. Identify 5 characteristics that consumers look for in modern fast-moving consumer food goods. Compare the characteristics you identify with those identified by someone else in your class. 2. Working in a small group. Brainstorm a series of ideas for the future development of Heinz Spaghetti. Having identified the ideas, list them in order of viability.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Swimming backstroke the complete guide to getting your stroke perfect, along with faults their causes and how to Swimming backstroke/ introduction Swimming backstroke is the third fastest stroke competitively, originated from an old english style of swimming backstrokeand has developed over the years and has evolved into an alternating and more effective action. This action givesthe backstroke less resistance with a continuous propulsion.The speed of the backstroke is limited by the restrictiverange of movement of the shoulders as well as the ability/inability to use the power in the chest muscles to thebest desired effect by the roll of the body which will be discussed in more detail in the chapter about the upsweepof the arms. When swimming backstroke it is usually developed from a simple back paddle just kicking legs on the back, once this achieved then the backstroke swimmer can begin to develop the arms as long as the streamlined body position is maintained.Swimming backstroke c an be a first choice of stroke for the beginner because it free from the water and does not reallyrequire a breathing pattern so there are little or no difficulties. The only problem can occur is that some swimmersdo not like lying on their back due to fear of the water. Swimming backstroke/ body position When swimming backstroke the body should be in a flat and horizontal position (supine). The body should also be ina streamlined position. The head should be relaxed, with the water should be crossing the ears keeping steady andin line with the body.The eyes should be looking upwards and backwards keeping the chin close to the chest. Keep your shoulders just below the surface of the water but they will only become visible as your body rollsand your arms recover. Your hips are the lowest part of the body when swimming the backstroke. The practice ofletting the less able swimmers hips sink should be discouraged if you are teaching your child or yourself to swim backstroke Keep your le gs and toes close the surface with your toes breaking the surface of the water. Your body will roll on it'slongitudinal axis, you can roll up to about 60 degrees from the horizontal.This roll helps to assist so thatyou can place your hand in the best catch position so that you can have an effective underwater arm action which assists the over water arm recovery. The only part of the body not involved in this body roll is the head this should be perfectly still when swimming backstroke. Swimming backstroke/ leg action When you swim backstroke you will need a good, strong and efficient legs kick. The leg kick in backstroke is mainlyused for balance, it is not very likely that the leg kick will provide much propulsion.If you were a good leg kicker then you may get a little propulsion maybe 1-5 percent which could be used when the arms are not intheir propulsive phase. When one arm is above the head ready for entry and the other is by the side just finishedit's pull. You must remember t hat the although the legs do not contribute to propulsion they are still importantfor a good body position as well as balance for your strong sweeping actions made by your arms which is made outside the line of the body which will in effect will cause lateral deviation. So a good leg action willminimize lateral deviation (moving from side to side).Although the kicks are described as an upbeat and downbeat it is important that the kick does not necessarily take place in the vertical plane. Your hips move side to side along with the upper body as it rolls so the path of thekick is influenced at the time of the upbeat and downbeat. When swimming backstroke the legs action is alternating as well as continuous. Your legs will stay close togetherand the movement of each of your legs initiates from the hip and is observed as an upbeat and downbeat. Swimming backstroke/ Downbeat (recovery) Your leg will begin the downbeat close to the surface of the water and the leg is almost straight.When you begin thedownbeat your hip will press downwards and then will be followed by your upper leg your lower leg and your foot. The downbeat of each of your legs is called the recovery phase so this movement you will find should be relaxedand done without very much effort. When you get to the end of the downbeat that will be the lowest point and outside of your body range. The depth of this all depend on the size of your limbs. As a guide the leg will be at a point where the leg can be fully extended with your toes pointed. It will be apparent to the backstrokeswimmer that the flexibility of the your ankles is of importance.Swimming backstroke/ Upbeat (propulsion) The upbeat will begins as your hip begins to lift. Then your upper leg follows the hip and your knee will begin to bend your knee will bend will be about 90 to 120 degrees. Your lower leg will then press upwards with your shin andand the top of your foot. The pressure at this stage is a combination of upwards and backwards. Now your leg willaccelerate upwards and as you kick your leg to the surface this is when propulsion is achieved. When the toes breakthe surface the upbeat ends. Swimming backstroke/ arm actionWhen swimming backstroke you will find that the arms provide main propulsion. The arm action is continuous and alternating. There are four partsto the arms in backstroke which are the entry, catch, propulsive phase and recovery which I will discuss in moredetail. Swimming backstroke/ Entry When your hand enters the water your little finger enters first keeping it in line with your shoulder. Your palm facing outwards and then handshould sink to a depth of about 30 cms causing the minimum amount of drag. Make sure that your hand does sink a little because it help with your body roll.Your arm will also be fully extended As your hand will be placed in the water. Making sure it is donewithout any undue tension as well as making sure that you do not over reach. It is very important that the arm ente rs in line with the shoulder. An entry that is too close to the centre line or too wide will have a detrimental effect on your streamlining and propulsion. It is also very importantthat your little finger enters first by entering with the back of the hand will cause more resistance also you will not be able to sink your hand to the desired position as well as a tendency to pull with the little finger leading.Your hand will start to feel the pressure of the water ready for the sweeping and propulsive movement which will follow. Shortly afterwards your hand will be in the catch position. You will then rotate your hand downwards, as you press on the water your elbow will bend and your upper arm will rotate, givingyou a high elbow position that you need to enable the initial downward sweep to be performed effectively. When learning the backstroke you will find that the arms are the hardest part of the stroke and to develop the correct catch position and the downwards movement to the cat ch position.But practice makes perfect! Swimming backstroke/ Catch Your hand will now begin to give a backwards pressure on the water. This is so that your hand can make a purchase on the water and move your body forwards over the hand. Swimming backstroke/ downsweep Your elbow will now begin to bend and your hand will continue to sweep downwards slightly. As your hand begins the downsweep the pitch of your hand will be downwards as well as backwards. When you have finished the downsweep your elbow will be flexed to 90 degrees your hand will be in line with your shoulder. our elbow at this point will be pointing to the pool bottom and your finger tips should be facing outwards. You will change your hand pitchinto a backwards direction in the transition period, through to inwards and upwards, ready to begin your upsweep. Swimming backstroke/ Pitch of the hand It is important to realize that swimming backstroke you will continually alter the pitch of your hand throughout the sweeping actions. So that you get the best possible propulsion during the downsweep your hand should be pitched downwards, outwards, and slightly backwards.Swimming backstroke/ Upsweep Your hand will now sweep upwards towards the surface of the water keeping the elbow bent. The upsweep progresses from your shoulder line through to justabove the waist. It is of importance now that the roll is of great importance, to ensure that the sweeping propulsive can be effective. At the endof your upsweep your pitch is now altered to backwards then to downwards and then backwards. Swimming backstroke/ Final Downsweep When your hand sweeps downwards your elbow will straighten.The propulsive phase of the arm stroke is now completed with your arm extended below your hip. When you swim with the arms they are likened to a long letter Ã¢â¬Ës' shape alongside your body in the water. Swimming backstroke/ Recovery Your body will roll after the final downsweep of your hand the recovery action of your arm begins . Your hand on which you are to recover will be below the level of your hip so it needs to be lifted through the water in a way which will cause you the minimum amount of resistance.You can achieve thisby rotating your hand inwards so the palm faces your thigh, your hand will then be able to cut through the water on its side. When you bring it up it should leave the water be thumb first. Once your arms have left the water your arms should come directly over your shoulder being an elevated positiondue to the body roll. When your thumb is your arms is gradually from your shoulder joint to place your hand in a little finger entry position as it passes yourhead on it's way down into the water.Make sure your arm is straight as wells relaxed during the recovery giving your arms an opportunity to recovery from thepropulsive phase. Make sure you do not overreach at this time. Swimming backstroke/ arm opposition When swimming backstroke the timing of the recovery and propulsive arm position is very important if you want to swim backstroke with good technique. As your recovering arm enters the water the propulsive arm should be sweeping down at the end of it's propulsive phase.The opposition of your arms helps with your body roll and your streamlining and it provides the most continuous application of propulsive force on the water. Swimming backstroke/ breathing When swimming backstroke breathing is not usually any problem because the head is free of the water and does not go into the water at any time. Breathing can take place at anytime during the stroke. Make sure that you take a regular pattern of breathing. The usual pattern of breathing isto take an in breath as one arm recovers and an out breath on the other arm recovery (in on one arm out on the other).Swimming backstroke/ co-ordination When swimming the backstroke there are two parts to co-ordination the timing the leg action with your arms as well as the arms with eachother. Swimming backstroke/ leg action tim ing The most common timing used is the six beat leg action this is complete by the time the cycle of the arms is complete. It is important that a strong balancing leg kick is used when swimming backstroke because as I mentioned before the arms are pitched outside the center line and the faster leg kick s used to maintain a streamline and horizontal position preventing lateral deviation (body moving side to side). The six beat action is the most commonly used a small minority of backstroke swimmers will use any other pattern. Swimming backstroke/ arm action timing When swimming backstroke your arms can be seen opposite each other but there is a period in this cycle when both arms are in the water at the same time. This is simply when one arm is moving towards the catch and the other is releasing the water and beginning the recovery.This is a slight overlap which ensures that your stroke doeskeep a continuous propulsion from your arms. Swimming backstroke/ faults, causes and correctio ns When you swim backstroke you will find you may have one or more faults, in this part of my page we will look at thefault that you may come across the reasons why and how you can improve and correct the fault. You may not realize youhave any kind of fault but it may be worth having a read in case you recognize something in your stroke which youmay not have realized is a fault.
For many centuries, ancient Greek mythology has played an instrumental role in the development and foundation of all societies. The ancient myths formed through Greek Mythology has given meaning to the world people saw around them and helped answer perplexing questions such as, Ã¢â¬Å"Who made the world? How will it end? Who was the first man? Where do souls go after death?Ã¢â¬ . In fact, Greek mythology has provided meaning to people and the world around them in the same way Christianity and Judaism does. Greek mythology can relate to Christianity and Judaism such that they all were based off oral tradition, they have helped mankind develop a community that shares a common world view through moral way of life, and they all respond to our quest for wonder, the mystical and the unknown. Nonetheless, it is necessary to try and understand that both Ancient Greeks and Ancient Christians may have held similar beliefs about the world they were living in. In ancient Mythology, although there were no written texts that presented the several myths and stories such as the Christian Bible or the Hebrew Torah, the earliest Greek myths were part of an oral tradition. Ancient Greek myths, in their unknown beginnings, are believed to have been formed and passed on by oral tradition, meaning the myths originated from story-telling. The spread of Greek myths can relate to the early spread of Christianity and Judaism in the respect that the stories in the Bible and the Torah were stories about the sayings and acts of Jesus as told by story tellers long before they were ever recorded into a written text. Greek mythology, Christianity and Judaism are also similar such that they all teach a moral way of life and help mankind share a common world view. Almost all ancient Greek myths were constructed to teach some sort of lesson or moral, for example, in the story of Arachne. In the story, Arachne expressed extreme pride in her weaving skills; in Ancient Greece, having too much pride was considered a very unfavorable quality to acquire. Arachne believed her weaving abilities were far more superior than that of AthenaÃ¢â¬â¢s, the goddess of weaving, so she challenged her to a weaving contest. In the end, ArachneÃ¢â¬â¢s skills did not even compare to AthenaÃ¢â¬â¢s and Athena turned her into a spider. The story teaches that excessive pride and having a big ego is not considered acceptable if one wants to like a purely moral life. Like Greek mythology, Judaism and Christianity also strive to teach mankind how to live a fulfilling, moral life through the Ten Commandments. The Ten Commandments in Judaism and Christianity are a set of laws that God gave to the people of Israel that represent the main moral code of behavior every person should try to follow in order to live a spiritually pure and moral life. Finally, Greek mythology, Christianity and Judaism are similar because they all attempt to answer our perplexing questions and wonders about the world we live in. For instance, one similarity lies with the stories of creation; The story of PandoraÃ¢â¬â¢s Box in Greek mythology and the Book of Genesis in Judaism and Christianity. In the story of PandoraÃ¢â¬â¢s Box, Pandora was the first woman created and she was given a box by the Gods that she was told to never open. In the end, her curiosity overcame her, she opened the box and out came all the evils of the world. The story in the Book of Genesis is very similar- God created Adam and Eve and commanded them not to eat the fruit from the forbidden tree. Eventually, a serpent appeared to Eve and convinced her to eat the forbidden fruit. She persuaded her partner, Adam, to eat the fruit also and as a result, sin engulfed the world. The ancient Greeks and early Christians tried to find an explanation for the evil in the world, and both blame a woman for mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Vidhya Shikshak Seva Mandal [pic] Government Registered INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY Government Recognized An ISO 9001: 2008 International B-School SUB: PRODUCTION & OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Section Ã¢â¬âA Fill in the blanks 1. Production planning functions can be broadly identified as ______, _______ and _______. a) Estimating , routing , distribution b) Estimating, routing, scheduling c) Estimating, distribution, collection d) Distribution, collection, scheduling 2.For efficient process of order picking by personnel, communication plays a vital role in any Organization and the directives they need to have are ____, _____ and _______. a) Simple, clear and straight b) Straight, clear and easy c) Precise, timely and appropriate d) Accurate, timely and sufficient 3. The three major functions of any business organization are _______, _______ and ______. a) Coordinating, organizing, delegating b) Organizing, supervising, executing c) Controlling, manning, procur ing d) Operations, marketing, finance 4. Formulation of the strategy depends on the _________. ) Assessments of strengths, understanding of the weaknesses, the nature of external environment and the resilience of the internal environment. b) Understanding strategies, formulation of plans, utilization of resources, enabling opportunities c) Resilience of internal environment, resilience of external environment, understanding strategies, enabling opportunities d) Decision making abilities, strategizing the actions, preparation of master plan, resource planning 5. Match the following: P) Market analysis x) needs assessment Q) Competitive priorities y) design analysisR) Product design z) cost quality Which of the following is correct? a) P-X, Q-Y, R-Z b) P-X, Q-Z, R-Y c) P-Y, Q-Z, R-X d) P-Z, Q-Y, R-X 6. All operation systems are based on criteria of _____, ______ and _____. a) Output of product, specification of product and flow pattern b) Input of product, characteristics of product a nd prices c) Quality of services, operations and input of product d) decision making ability, input of product and output of product 7. Consider the following statements: P) Evaluation is done for the processes and quality assurance measures.Q) Sometimes suppliers are given total responsibility for design, procurement of materials, processing, Quality and deliveries as per schedules. Which of the following is correct? a) Both are true b) Both are false c) True and false respectively d) False and true respectively. 8. The method used mainly where transportation costs either for distribution of products or collection Of materials from different suppliers is the main criterion. a) Centre of gravity method b) Break even analysis c) Point rating method d) Factor rating method 9. PDCA stands for ________. a) Prepare, Develop, Control, Act ) Plan, Develop, Coordinate, Analyze c) Product, Development, Cost, Analyze d) Plan, Do, Check, Ac 10. Success of JIT depends upon a lot of ________ and _______. a) Preparation and committed implementation b) Teamwork and technology c) Cooperation and effort d) Information technology and planning 11. Write short notes on the following : (I) CPM Vs. pert technique (II) Total slack (III) Advantages of matrix organization (IV) Commission of projects 12. a. How would operations strategy for a service industry be different if any from that for a manufacturing industry? (ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an example & explains) . What are the levels of aggregation in forecasting for a manufacturing organization? How should this hierarchy of forecasts be linked and used? 13. How would forecasting be useful for operations in a BPO (Business processes outsourcing) unit? What factors may be important for this industry? Discuss. 14. A good work study should be followed by good supervision for getting good results. Explain with an example. 15. What is job evaluation? Can it be alternatively used as job ranking? How does one ensure that job evaluation evaluates the j ob and not the man? Explain with examples? 6. What is the impact of technology on jobs? What are the similarities between job enlargement & job rotation? Discuss the importance of training in the content of job redesign? Explain with examples? 17. What is internet connectivity? How is it important in to days business would with respect to materials requirement planning & purchasing? Explain with examples? 18. Would a project management organization be different from an organization for regular manufacturing in what ways? Examples. 19. How project evaluation different from project appraisal? Explain with examples.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Hudson posits a Native American grandmother, although there is no solid evidence of this. Her first marriage apparently dissolved, but there is no divorce record. She may or may not have had an affair with Aaron Burr, an early mentor. HudsonÃ¢â¬â¢s most significant claim is that Jane Storm is the journalist who coined the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"manifest destinyÃ¢â¬ (pp. 60-62). Hudson argues that later historians have simply assumed that John OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan wrote the Democratic ReviewÃ¢â¬â¢s many unsigned editorials. But HudsonÃ¢â¬â¢s computer analysis (Appendix B) of OÃ¢â¬â¢SullivanÃ¢â¬â¢s and StormÃ¢â¬â¢s signed works shows that the grammatical errors in the famous editorial that first contained the phrase exhibit a much closer correlation with those commonly made by Storm than with those made by OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan. What is certain is that she migrated to pre-revolutionary Texas and speculated in land grants and immigration schemes. Writing under the pen name Ã¢â¬Å"MontgomeryÃ¢â¬ (later, Ã¢â¬Å"Cora MontgomeryÃ¢â¬ ), Storm became a regular correspondent of Moses Y. BeachÃ¢â¬â¢s New York Sun. When war broke out, Storm accompanied Beach and his daughter on a covert peace mission to Mexico in late 1846. The Beach mission has long been clouded with uncertainty about its purposes and accomplishments, and so StormÃ¢â¬â¢s role in it is similarly in doubt. Nonetheless, she was clearly an important element, as neither of the Beaches knew Spanish and President James K. Polk had a private interview with her after her return. After the war, Storm continued to favor U. S. xpansion into Latin America and the Caribbean, especially through annexation. Although Hudson maintains that Storm was not a strong proponent of Ã¢â¬Å"All MexicoÃ¢â¬ during the U. S. -Mexican War, some have credited her with leading the movement. She had contact with Cuban, Mexican, and Nicaraguan filibustering groups. She married diplomat Williams L. Cazneau in 1849 after a long acquaintance but still worked as a journalist for numerous publications, wrote about her travels, and r emained active in Democratic Party politics. She secured a diplomatic mission to the Dominican Republic for her husband and worked with him to gain U. S. access to Samana Bay. Jane Storm Cazneau died in a shipwreck during a storm at sea in 1878. Many questions about her activities and the extent of her influence remain unanswered. Barring the emergence of new documentary collections, HudsonÃ¢â¬â¢s biography is the most complete picture of her life we are likely to have. As such it is a useful addition to the literature on nineteenth-century U. S. expansionism.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Construction contract - Essay Example 3 contract gives special emphasis to creating a spirit of mutual trust and cooperation between the parties of the contract and this has been added as the first clause of all NEC3 contracts, giving it a legal value. Another major difference between NEC3 and other forms of contract is the ability of NEC3 to warn the parties of contract about possible risks like increase in cost, delay in completion etc making possible the assessments of risks and timely mitigation through mutual consultation. Under the clause 61.3 the contractor is bound to notify the project manager about any compensation event within 8 weeks otherwise the burden of compensation will lie on the contractor, this clause is partly in conflict with prevention principle and can create legal complexities. NEC3 contract ensures risk management during the very beginning of contract through distribution of responsibilities and creating a Ã¢â¬Ëlegally boundÃ¢â¬â¢ mutual trust. By creating an atmosphere of trust and cooperation and through proper documentation NEC3 contract removes the communication deficit between parties of the contract which is a very common reason behind the failure of various projects. The JCT05 or the FIDIC cont ract are more detailed as compared to NEC3 however the simplicity offered by NEC3 is the key to better understanding and grasp by all parties of contract and thus ensuring a collaborative, efficient and good management of the
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Principles On Drug Abuse Treatment - Research Paper Example According to Belenk, offenders need to provide urine tests on a regular basis. The court further assists offenders to secure entitlements such as medical, housing, or welfare allowance. Offenders need to visit probation officers on a frequent basis well as visit counseling sessions. However, drug courts are not effective in the treatment of drug-related cases. This is because such courts use coercive means, which offenders conform to for just some time. Drug offenders like programs that give them the chance to volunteer. Courts, however, have strict regulations and procedures, which is not effective. Rehabilitation centers that offer such services voluntarily serve better to offenders. Drug treatment as a routine is effective in reducing recidivism among offenders. These programs, however, take various forms. These treatments include the use of voluntary service centers such as rehabilitation stations. It may also take the form of mandatory treatment programs that include the use of the drug courts and law enforcement. Drug abuse leads to the loss in the national governments' funds. Funding such program costs lots of dollars. On the health of offenders, drug treatment saves offenders from mental health complications. Despite the success of drug success of drug treatment program, it faces several challenges. Such challenges include the unavailability of high-quality programs, the difference in priorities and the inability of such programs to benefit offenders after prison time.
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
People and Organisation - Research Paper Example In a competitive market, a large number of producers strive to satisfy the needs of the same consumers. These rivalry means that no one party can dictate the price of goods or the direction that the market will adopt. Each player influences the marketing strategy that the other adopts (Economics Online (EO, 2012) When the prospects of gain are high, more firms are bound to enter the market and this is in line with the basic economic theory which dictates that for profits to be earned, the returns in revenue must outweigh the cost of production (Allen N.J. et al. 1990.pp.638-642). The profits could be termed as normal or abnormal depending on the revenue collected. According to Lan Li: If the returns equal the cost then the profit is normal but if they surpass the cost, it is abnormal. In the case of Coca-Cola Company, the stock of goods lessens with every purchase and this is in line with the Principle of Diminishability. As the stocks approach zero, the price escalates and this drives the company to boost production. Perfect Competition: for a market to be perfectly economical, the number of buyers and sellers must by very large and for the producers, there is the freedom to join and exit the market at ones will. Monopoly market: monopoly describes a market scene where only one producer dictates the type of product to be availed and it is brought about by the absence of substitutes. This form of dominance brings about limitations on market entry. Duopoly on the other hand brings into play the theory of Oligopoly whereby there are two entities in the market and they are completely independent of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. The competition lies between the two firms and they can therefore adjust their prices so as to gain the upper hand in the sales. Oligopoly means that there is a number of entities in the market and they try to outdo each other. Therefore any strategy adopted be it advertising or
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
The four people who influenced malcolm x life - Research Paper Example ?s family background, the biographic report projects about his mother Ã¢â¬ËLouise Norton LittleÃ¢â¬â¢ as a homemaker as well as the mother of eight children. MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Ã¢â¬ËEarl LittleÃ¢â¬â¢ was a minister and a supporter of Marcus Garvey who during that time was the leader of the Black Nationalist Party (Colorado State University, Ã¢â¬Å"Malcolm X - An Islamic Perspective.Ã¢â¬ ). Adding to these, during the childhood days of Malcolm, his family was often threatened by the Ã¢â¬ËBlack LegionÃ¢â¬â¢ which was a Ã¢â¬Ëwhite supremacist organizationÃ¢â¬â¢ and which even got its hands in the murder of Ã¢â¬ËEarl LittleÃ¢â¬â¢. The entire life of Malcolm took the form of struggle after this incident. These factors highlight the historical background of this Ã¢â¬ËAfrican-American MuslimÃ¢â¬â¢ minister along with Ã¢â¬ËHuman Rights ActivistÃ¢â¬â¢ (The Estate of Malcolm X, Ã¢â¬Å"BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). Thesis. The four individuals who had a lasting impact on Malcolm XÃ¢â¬â¢s life were Ã¢â¬Ëhis father Earl LittleÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëhis brother ReginaldÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËElijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam (NOI) organizationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëhis wife Betty ShabazzÃ¢â¬â¢. In the life of Malcolm X, the influence of the mentioned four individuals had been profound and compelling to direct him towards attaining greater recognition as a forthright leader of the masses. The first person who can be considered to have influenced MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s life is his father Ã¢â¬ËEarl LittleÃ¢â¬â¢. MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s father had been into the political scenario since long and had played a significant role in terms of influencing Malcolm to enter the world of politics after the death of his father and a long phase of struggling childhood. As stated in his biography, ever since the death of his father, all the eight children got split up either with foster parents or ended up in orphanages (The Estate of Malcolm X, Ã¢â¬Å"BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). Malcolm during his teenage period got arrested in a case of burglary and was sentenced to suffice 10 years of imprisonment. It was during that time
Monday, September 9, 2019
Guns control - Research Paper Example The issue of guns can be reviewed based on a social approach, the criminal approach and the political approach. There should be stricter gun control to avoid the repeat of killings by gun owners. In the wake of shootings across America, republicans and democrats have been at it spreading their agenda about the existing gun laws. The political approach in the debate deals with the laws and political players that have a voice in the debate (MacKay 17). This approach is a key player in the debate because the decisions taken by the political leaders have a wide impact on the citizens. Democrats and republics find themselves in different sides of the debate. The pro-gun faction is strengthened by the support of the republicans who are largely doomed as conservatists. The national rifle association is also a strong force that has an association with the republicans in the pro-gun movement. The democrats are largely in support of the gun control. The key role of the government is to guarantee the citizens a high level of security. There should not be fear of attack but use of guns from other people who were let to recklessly use them because of less strict laws. The role of government in making laws that guarantee safety is very much on demand based on the statistics over the recent years. These who rally for the anti-gun control initiatives argue on the basis of individual rights to security and ownership of a weapon to keep safe. While this could be true and very worthwhile to pursue, it is imperative to consider the wider scope. The social impact of the presence of guns is significant to factor in. The second amendment does much to give freedom of owning firearms by common American citizens. While this freedom is necessary, it should be checked whether there is a significant social cause for ownership of a firearm. In times where people conduct random shootings in the streets and raid schools, there should be a concern on what the freedom
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Starbucks Analyse Marketing Activities and Performance - Essay Example It opened its very first outlet in Market Place, SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s Pike. In 1986 it was acquired by Schultz, who envisioned it as a home coffee shop where people can get the best coffee with other complementary services. The company was expanded with proper positioning and marketing strategies soon after it was acquired by Schultz. Starbucks then reanalyzed its marketing activities which were solely based upon maintaining a personal and cherished relationship between customers and the company. This was done initially by reviving the experience of Italian Espresso Bars. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s primary focus was over the quality services extended to its customers and the overall in-store experience. Therefore they bought the best quality coffee and maintain a consummate brand image. The company had a mission statement stating the real purpose of existence i.e. to serve American population. In exact words: Ã¢â¬Å"To instigate and nurture the human strength through serving them one cup per p erson at a specific areaÃ¢â¬ (Charles W. Lamb 22). After having successful business for twenty five years Starbucks expanded its business into the foreign lands. This was initiated through the opening of their first international outlet in Tokyo, Japan. Currently the company has more than 17,000 stores in 49 countries which has enabled the company to become the most recognizable and reputable brand of the world. From the time when it was established in 1971, the company has shown a significantly increasing growth trend which indicates its outstanding performance and enhanced satisfaction level of StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ customers (Charles W. Lamb 22). Organizational Chart (Starbucks) Product Portfolio Starbucks has a distinctive product portfolio which encompasses a wide range of coffee flavors. It is divided into five categories, namely: Starbucks, Creamice, Fontana, Tazo Tea and Supplies (Products: Our Complete Product Portfolio). Starbucks: It is further classified into ingredients of beverages which are mostly used in production of different drinks and coffees. They also have branded cups with the name of Ã¢â¬ËStarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢. Additionally they have hot cocoa which is a very unique, high quality chocolate drink and resale merchandize which includes: ceramic cups, roasted dry fruits, biscuits, etc. Creamice: It includes all the beverages which fall into the category of frozen blend. These are served with flavor treats and customized syrups. It has been divided into further categories: Latte, Mango, Mocha and Raspberry. Fontana: It contains a wide variety of syrups and sauces which turns beverages into specialty offering i.e. unique to Starbucks only. The major categories includes: chocolate syrups, fruit syrups and sauces, nuts and essences. Tazo Tea: Coffee and tea are ever best companions and Starbucks has further intensified their relationship. There is a huge variety of tea which is sold in branded packaging. It is artfully blended to give a superior t aste to the customers. The extended versions include: Gallon Bulk Iced tea I, Gallon Bulk Iced Tea II, Filter bag and Tea Latte Concentrate. Supplies: They supply a wide range of products concerning coffee and tea. For instance, they have filters of different sizes, cleaning powders, brushes, pitchers, cream dispensers amongst other things. Broadly the supplies are categorized in to airpots and carefes, small wares, cups and cleaning stuff. SWOT Strengths (Starbucks SWOT Analysis): They have a wide range of p