Thursday, May 23, 2019

Inside Islam notes Essay

Islam means Peace and Submission (The slumber that comes from submission, the attention to God that comes from field pansy.) Allah Akbar means God is great. Sunni = 85% of Moslem population Shia = 10% Sufi less than 5% Islam is not only a religion of the Middle East largest population of Muslims is in India. Largest Islamic country is Indonesia. Of same faith tradition as both Christians and Jews Muslims & Jews are both monotheistic, differ only on mainly messianic theology Places of worship differ yet can coexist Spain fostered every(prenominal) three Abrahamic faiths during pre-Ferdinand and Isabella era (pre-1492) office staff 2 of 9 Pre Muslim Mecca, Quraish tribe, Muhammads early categorys & first vision, Quran, 1st chromatography column shahadah, and start of second pillar solicitation http// descended from Hagar and Ishmael, who fled to the desert Abraham, according to Muslim legend, built Kaba Quraysh tribe controlled Mecca as trading city. Later put icons and statues of heterogeneous tribal Gods inside Kaba so Mecca would become even more important as a pilgrimage site. Muhammad was born several generations later in 570 AD into a richesy family. His dad died, his grandfather sent him to live with trading caravans. As a young man he became a intellectual caravanier, married Khadijah Muhammad illiterate, so others recorded his recitationsQuran means recitation, a mix of poetry, stories, admonitions, advice and fightnings. slice 3 of 9 2nd pillar (prayer) go along, Muhammad gains followers, conflict with Meccans, Hijra, to Ummayad dynasty beginning of 3rd pillar http// gave sermons against polytheism to pilgrims arriving at the Kaba in Mecca was persecuted by Quraish Muhammad had no strong political ally, few followers initially. Journeyed to Yathrib (later named Medina, City of the Prophet) to negociate dispute between city states. Became year 0 in Isl amic calendar, 622 CE. Set up first Islamic community (Ummah)Meccans were enraged, attacked Medina to destroy Muslims. Battle of Badr, outnumbered by Meccans, yet Medinans won Muslims triumphed 630 AD Muslims returned to Mecca Cleansed Abrahams sacred temple (Kaba) of idols of pilgrims, kept the Kaba (lit. cube) as the central expression of monotheism Offered Meccans freedom for peace, many converted Arab tribes came to pay tribute to Muhammad and convert Umayyads 1st dynasty 750 Within a century of Muhammads death Muslims controlled more lay than the Roman EmpireTurkey to separate of China. Jews and Christians were exempt from conversion to Islam 3rd pillar Charity is heavily emphasized in the Quran, even more than the subordinate status of womenPart 4 of 9 3rd pillar, charity, continued 4th pillar, Ramadan, Abbasid dynasty Crusades Mongols http// Pillar Charity From everything you own you give 2.5% All money collected must be given to t hose in need One must follow the prodigal during the month of Ramadan as the 4th pillar Fast lasts from sunrise public treasury sunset Exceptions are made for the sick, weak, children, and the mothers who are expecting Its a time to intensify your efforts to build your relationship with God The festival of the great Eid (Lit. festival) of the breaking of the fast Shia split from the Sunni after the death of Hussein (680 AD) There was a discrepancy of how leaders should be put in place Shia believed that leaders should be necessitate descendants of Muhammad Sunni believed leaders should be elected democratically8th century g overageden age in Iraq, Abbasid dynasty arose in Bagdad Abbasids valued learning, Greek philosophy and natural science. Algebra invented, decimals, exponents. Medicine developed, orthopedics, mental illness treatment, surgery. Crusades Jerusalem is 3rd most sacred city for Muslims 1099 Christians slaughter 30k Muslims 1258 Genghis Khans grandson & his Mongols plundered BagdadPart 5 of 9 Mongol era 5th Pillar, Hajj in Spain, interfaith cooperation http// trace=relatedThe Mongol Khan becomes a Muslim,Lesser pilgrimage can be taken to Mecca at any time of the year (min 030) Hajj, the greater pilgrimage, occurs only once a year a. Ihram1 = 2 white cloths in which you leave behind be buried are worn during Hajj, significance is equality, Ihram2 is also = peaceful demeanor to accept all as brothers & sisters. b. Ablution (ritual washing) leads to first stage circumambulation 7 times God is the axis of ones life c. 2nd step is to march between 2 hills representing Hagars search for water for Ismael represents ones struggle in life d. Next day they travel to the plain of Arafat. Pilgrims walk in quiet prayer confessing sins at Mount of Arafat. e. Next, to Mina to throw stones at 3 pillars representing Satan, sins are forgiven f. Last event prayer service at KabaMuslim scholars uphold writings from hordes 71 1 CE Muslims arrive at Gibraltar a. Called Moors, dwelled in Andalusia, cities of Cordoba & Seville b. Horticulture, math, navigation developedc. Muslim, Jewish & Christian scholars worked together became a source for the RenaissancePart 6 of 9 Spain, Ottoman Empire place of women Colonialism http//, Christian re-conquest of Spain expelling Moors and forcing conversion or expulsion of Jews 1492 the Moors were kicked out of Spain 1453 Greek Constantinople bestial to Muslim troops name changed to Istanbul = Islam in Abundance Sultan was the ruler of Islamic Ottoman society. Sultan means ruler Sultans harem (Haram forbidden, taboo) group of concubines, in Western eyes they are dens of iniquity, but in Islamic practice they were centers of protection for women and sources for caucusing about political power Islamic polygamy all wives need to be treated equallyPart 7 of 9 Suez Canal France colonizes Algeria WWI colonialism Wahabism, jehad http// sense of high quality disparaged Muslims France took over northern Africa and the northern part of the Middle East, discouraging Arabic language and Islamic faith. England expanded into Egypt after creating the Suez Canal, also taking the Sinai Peninsula, Palestine, and Iraq. Ottomans sided with Germany in WWI, so England & France took Muslim lands when Germany lost (min 240) Muslim Brotherhood arose in Egypt in 1928Some Muslim states encouraged western style central authoritarian dictatorships Muslim Brotherhood resisted these. Following WW2 Muslims throughout European colonies rose up, demanding release from the European counties. Mohammad ibn Abdul Wahab became a leader in the Islamic world, preaching an ascetic, puritanical form of Islam Created Wahabism, founded Saudi-Arabian State, merging desert warrior spirit with puritanical reform. Very fundamental and radical form of IslamWas supported by Saud family, who woul d become rulers of Saudi Arabia Oil gave Saudis great wealth allowing them to expand Wahabist beliefs. Giving the money to organizations has caused an even more radical group of beliefs to arise Jihad = struggle. The greater jihad is the struggle of ones will against ones passions and weaknesses, an inner struggle. The lesser jihad is a defensive war, using just war criteria. Some groups called for a radical Jihad war against western nations The end justifying the means leads to terrorism.Osama Bin-Laden in particularPart 8 of 9 Malcolm X Israel Iran hostage crisis, Iraq http// X We (blacks) did not land on Plymouth Rock the rock was landed on us Walhid Farad formed the state of matter of Islam Elijah Poole joined him changed name to Elijah Muhammad & took charge in 1934 Malcolm Little perceive about Nation of Islam in Prison, changed name to Malcolm X Malcolm X What was your name before you lost it?Malcolm X came back from hajj inspired t o join Nation of Islam to traditional Islam Gunned down By 1975, Elijahs son brought about Malcolm Xs dream changed name to World Community of Islam Louis Farrakhan continued in old ways of separation Israel made a state in 1948. In 6 Day War in 1967 tensions increased with Muslims 1978 Irans Shah fell to Shiite Ayatollah Khomeini US cast asGreat Satan Students took US embassy workers in Tehran as hostages for 444 days Sadat in Egypt assassinated he had signed a peace treaty with Israel. Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990 coalition lead by US stopped him, imposed no-fly ZonePart 9 of 9 Suicide assail Islamic hell & heaven wrap up http// made people informed not only of radical fringe of Islam, but also of the peaceful Muslim neighbors. Even in heaven one cannot see God Pleas for peace Few stable & fair Muslim governments have replaced colonial governmentsPart 1 of 9 Intro and basic facts http// Part 2 of 9 Pre Muslim Mecca, Quraish tribe, Muhammads early years & first vision, Quran, 1st pillar shahadah, and start of 2nd pillar prayer http// Part 3 of 9 2nd pillar (prayer) continued, Muhammad gains followers, conflict with Meccans, Hijra, to Ummayad dynasty beginning of 3rd pillar http// Part 4 of 9 3rdpillar, charity, continued 4th pillar, Ramadan, Abbasid dynastyCrusades Mongols http// Part 5 of 9 Mongol era 5thPillar, Hajj in Spain, interfaith cooperation http// Part 6 of 9 Spain, Ottoman Empire place of women Colonialism http// Part 7 of 9 Suez Canal France colonizes Algeria WWI colonialism Wahabism, Jihad http// Part 8 of 9 Malcolm X Israel Iran hostage crisis, Iraq http// Part 9 of 9 Suicide bombi ng Islamic hell & heaven wrap up http//

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