Saturday, January 11, 2020
The 4p Applied by Coca-Cola Company
Title: The 4P applied by the Coca- Cola Company. 1. 0 Company Overview Coca-Cola history began in 1886 when the curiosity of an Atlanta pharmacist, Dr. John S. Pemberton, led him to create a distinctive tasting soft drink that could be sold at soda fountains. He created a flavoured syrup, took it to his neighbourhood pharmacy, where it was mixed with carbonated water and deemed Ã¢â¬Å"excellentÃ¢â¬ by those who sampled it. Dr. Pemberton's partner and bookkeeper, Frank M. Robinson, is credited with naming the beverage Ã¢â¬Å"Coca-ColaÃ¢â¬ as well as designing the trademarked, distinct script, still used today. Picture 1: Dr. John S.Pemberton Prior to his death in 1888, just two years after creating what was to become the world's number 1 selling sparkling beverage, Dr. Pemberton sold portions of his business to various parties, with the majority of the interest sold to Atlanta businessman, Asa G. Candler. Under Mr. Candler's leadership, distribution of Coca-Cola expanded to soda fountains beyond Atlanta. In 1894, impressed by the growing demand for Coca-Cola and the desire to make the beverage portable, Joseph Biedenharn installed bottling machinery in the rear of his Mississippi soda fountain, becoming the first to put Coca-Cola in bottles.Large scale bottling was made possible just five years later, when in 1899, three enterprising businessmen in Chattanooga, Tennessee secured exclusive rights to bottle and sell Coca-Cola. The three entrepreneurs purchased the bottling rights from Asa Candler for just $1. Benjamin Thomas, Joseph Whitehead and John Lupton developed what became the Coca-Cola worldwide bottling system. 2. 0 Product Description Coca- Cola Company comes out with plenty of product variations from the years it is invented until now.The most popular product is the original version of Coca- Cola, this is the key products for Coca-Cola company. Besides that there is plenty others product developed by Coca-Cola Company based on the demand, here is the top Coca-Cola products sell all around the world: Name| Launched| Discontinued| Notes| Picture| Coca-Cola| 1886| Present| The original version of Coca-Cola. | | Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola| 1983| Present| The caffeine free version of Coca-Cola. | | Coca-Cola Cherry| 1985| Present| Was available in Canada starting in 1996.Called Ã¢â¬Å"Cherry Coca-Cola (Cherry Coke)Ã¢â¬ in North America until 2006. | | New Coke/Ã¢â¬ Coca-Cola IIÃ¢â¬ | 1985| 2002| Was still available in Yap and American Samoa| | Coca-Cola with Lemon| 2001| 2005| Available in:Australia, American Samoa, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Denmark, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Iceland, Korea, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Reunion, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, and West Bank-Gaza. | Coca-Cola Vanilla| 2002; 2007| Present| Available in: Austria, Australia, China, Finland, Germ any, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Malaysia, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States. It was reintroduced in June 2007 by popular demand. | | Coca-Cola with Lime| 2005| Present| Available in Belgium, Netherlands, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. | Coca-Cola Raspberry| 2006| Middle of 2007| Was replaced by Vanilla Coke in June 2007| | Coca-Cola Blak| 2006| Beginning of 2008| Only available in the United States, France, Canada, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Lithuania| | Coca-Cola Citra| 2006| Present| Only available in Bosnia and Herzegovina, New Zealand and Japan. | | Coca-Cola Orange| 2007| Present| Was available in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar for a limited time. In Germany, Austria and Switzerland it's sold under the label Mezzo Mix.Currently available in Coca-Cola Freestyle fountain outlets in the United States since 2009. | | Beside of products variation, every Coca-Cola products must come with their official logo. The famous Co ca-Cola logo was created by John Pemberton's bookkeeper, Frank Mason Robinson, in 1885. Robinson came up with the name and chose the logo's distinctive cursive script. The typeface used, known as Spencerian script, was developed in the mid-19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period. Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising.His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs. Picture 2: Coca-Cola official logo. 3. 0 Pricing Strategies At United State, pricing strategies is the major factor contributing to the growth of the company in order to keep Coca-Cola as the leading brand for carbonated soft drinks. In November 2009, due to a dispute over wholesale prices of Coca-Cola products, Costco stopped restocking its shelves with Coke and Diet Coke.However, some Costco locations (suc h as the ones in Tucson, Arizona), sell imported Coca-Cola from Mexico. Coca-Cola introduced the 7. 5-ounce mini-can in 2009, and on September 22, 2011, the company announced price reductions, asking retailers to sell eight-packs for $2. 99. That same day, Coca-Cola announced the 12. 5-ounce bottle, to sell for 89 cents. A 16-ounce bottle has sold well at 99 cents since being re-introduced, but the price was going up to $1. 19. In 2012, Coca-Cola would resume business in Myanmar after 60 years of absence due to U.S. -imposed investment sanctions against the country. Coca-Cola with its partners is to invest USD 5 billion in its operations in India by 2020. In Malaysia Coca-cola products come with 3 sizes. It can be bought as low as RM 1. 70 per can (325ml), for 500ml bottles it can be bought at RM 2. 50 average, and for the 1. 5L bottle the price is between RM 3. 50 Ã¢â¬â 4. 00. 4. 0 Promotional Element Used. The first marketing efforts in Coca-Cola history were executed through c oupons promoting free samples of the beverage.Considered an innovative tactic back in 1887, couponing was followed by newspaper advertising and the distribution of promotional items bearing the Coca-Cola script to participating pharmacies. Coca-Cola's advertising has significantly affected American culture, and it is frequently credited with inventing the modern image of Santa Claus as an old man in a red-and-white suit. Although the company did start using the red-and-white Santa image in the 1930s, with its winter advertising campaigns illustrated by Haddon Sundblom, the motif was lready common. Coca-Cola was not even the first soft drink company to use the modern image of Santa Claus in its advertising: White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in 1923, after first using him to sell mineral water in 1915. Before Santa Claus, Coca-Cola relied on images of smartly dressed young women to sell its beverages. Coca-Cola's first such advertisement appeared in 1895, featuring the young Bostonian actress Hilda Clark as its spokeswoman. 4. 1 Holiday campaigns The Ã¢â¬Å"Holidays are coming! advertisement features a train of red delivery trucks, emblazoned with the Coca-Cola name and decorated with Christmas lights, driving through a snowy landscape and causing everything that they pass to light up and people to watch as they pass through. The advertisement fell into disuse in 2001, as the Coca-Cola Company restructured its advertising campaigns so that advertising around the world was produced locally in each country, rather than centrally in the company's headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.In 2007, the company brought back the campaign, according to the company many consumers telephoned its information centre saying that they considered it to mark the beginning of Christmas. The advertisement was created by U. S. advertising agency Doner, and has been part of the company's global advertising campaign for many years. 4. 2 Sports sponsorship C oca-Cola was the first commercial sponsor of the Olympic games, at the 1928 games in Amsterdam, and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since.This corporate sponsorship included the 1996 Summer Olympics hosted in Atlanta, which allowed Coca-Cola to spotlight its hometown. Most recently, Coca-Cola has released localized commercials for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver; one Canadian commercial referred to Canada's hockey heritage and was modified after Canada won the gold medal game on February 28, 2010 by changing the ending line of the commercial to say Ã¢â¬Å"Now they know whose game they're playingÃ¢â¬ . Since 1978, Coca-Cola has sponsored the FIFA World Cup, and other competitions organised by FIFA.One FIFA tournament trophy, the FIFA World Youth Championship from Tunisia in 1977 to Malaysia in 1997, was called Ã¢â¬Å"FIFAÃ Ã¢â¬â Coca Cola CupÃ¢â¬ . In addition, Coca-Cola sponsors the annual Coca-Cola 600 and Coke Zero 400 for the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series at Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concord, North Carolina and Daytona International Speedway in Daytona, Florida. 4. 3 In mass media Fast forward to the 1970s when Coca-Cola's advertising started to reflect a brand connected with fun, friends and good times.Many fondly remember the 1971 Hilltop Singers performing Ã¢â¬Å"I'd Like to Buy the World a CokeÃ¢â¬ , or the 1979 Ã¢â¬Å"Have a Coke and a SmileÃ¢â¬ commercial featuring a young fan giving Pittsburgh Steeler, Ã¢â¬Å"Mean Joe GreeneÃ¢â¬ , a refreshing bottle of Coca-Cola. You can enjoy these and many more advertising campaigns from around the world in the Ã¢â¬Å"Perfect Pauses TheatreÃ¢â¬ at the World of Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola has been prominently featured in countless films and television programs.Since its creation, it remains as one of the most important elements of the popular culture. It was a major plot element in films such as One, Two, Three, The Coca-Cola Kid, and The Gods Must Be Crazy among many others. It provides a setting for comical corporate shenanigans in the novel Syrup by Maxx Barry. And in music, in The Beatles' song, Ã¢â¬Å"Come TogetherÃ¢â¬ , the lyrics said, Ã¢â¬Å"He shoot Coca-Cola, he sayÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å". The Beach Boys also referenced Coca-Cola in their 1964 song Ã¢â¬Å"All Summer LongÃ¢â¬ (i. e. Ã¢â¬ËMember when you spilled Coke all over your blouse? Also, the best selling artist of all time and worldwide cultural icon, Elvis Presley, promoted Coca-Cola during his last tour of 1977. The Coca-Cola Company used Elvis' image to promote the product. For example, the company used a song performed by Presley, A Little Less Conversation, in a Japanese Coca-Cola commercial. 5. 0 Place and The Products / Service Are Delivered To Customer. Coca-Cola as the number 1 carbonated soft drinks throughout all the nations, this soft drink sold in stores, restaurants, and vending machines in every country except Cuba and North Korea.Example like Malaysia, Coca-Cola products can be purchased at all 7 Eleven stores throughout this country 24hours per day. To make these products consistently at market, Coca-Cola Company come with idea to setup factory at the selected country for produce their products, called as franchised production model. The actual production and distribution of Coca-Cola follows a franchising model. The Coca-Cola Company only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to bottlers throughout the world, who hold Coca-Cola franchises for one or more geographical areas.The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sweeteners, and then carbonate it before putting it in cans and bottles, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants and food service distributors. The Coca-Cola Company owns minority shares in some of its largest franchises, such as Coca-Cola Enterprises, Coca-Cola Amatil, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company and Coca-Cola FEMSA, but fully independent bottlers produce al most half of the volume sold in the world.Independent bottlers are allowed to sweeten the drink according to local tastes. The bottling plant in Skopje, Macedonia, received the 2009 award for Ã¢â¬Å"Best Bottling CompanyÃ¢â¬ . 6. 0 Conclusion. Coca-Cola has been criticized for alleged adverse health effects, its aggressive marketing to children, exploitative labour practices, high levels of pesticides in its products, building plants in Nazi Germany which employed slave labour, environmental destruction, monopolistic business practices, and hiring paramilitary units to murder trade union leaders.In October 2009, in an effort to improve their image, Coca-Cola partnered with the American Academy of Family Physicians, providing a $500,000 grant to help promote healthy-lifestyle education; the partnership spawned sharp criticism of both Coca-Cola and the AAFP by physicians and nutritionists. Even though have been criticized by media, nutritionists, doctors and many parties, actually C oca-Cola Company are contributing to the growth of the country that they put their factory.As the giant player in carbonated soft drinks, Coca-Cola Company have build up their strong marketing strategies for many decades and they learned from past experience that make what they as today. Besides that the implementation of the 4P highlighted in this discussion is the key factor that makes them bigger, stronger and relevance all this time. In my opinion if anyone wants to setup a company for any industries, Coca-Cola Company experience, discipline and marketing strategies can be the best example to become a successful player in any businesses you entered.